Paper: “Progress Toward an Understanding of LENR-AHE Effects in Coated Constantan Wires in D2 Atmosphere: DC/AC Voltage Stimulation” (Celani/Vassallo)

Thanks to a reader for alerting me to a paper that was published last month on ResearchGate:


Title: “Progress Toward an Understanding of LENR-AHE Effects in Coated Constantan Wires in D2 Atmosphere: DC/AC Voltage Stimulation”

Authors: Francesco Celani, Georgio Vassallo


This paper presents a summary and some deeper details about the experiments presented at the 22nd International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (ICCF22). It reports on the experimental study of LENR phenomena in Constantan (Cu55 Ni44 Mn1) from its inception in 2011 to the most recent experiments. Using an empirical approach we identified the effect of surface modification of the Constantan wires with coatings comprised of elements that enhance the absorption behavior, and oxides with low work function for electron emission. We also explored certain geometrical arrangements of the wires such as knots and coils in order to induce local thermal gradients and predictable hot-spots. Moreover, the DC polarization of the wires by a counter-electrode proved to be a versatile approach to induce non-equilibrium conditions that are essential for Anomalous Heat Effects (AHE), especially when a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is produced. From the review of experiments summarized in this article, we obtain indications that the main parameter controlling the AHE is the flux of reactive species through the surface of the loaded material. As a consequence, all other external conditions of the reactor core (voltage-current, temperature, pressure, electric field stimulations, DC and/or AC external fields), can be seen as co-factors that enable a flux of active species through surfaces and in the bulk of the materials. Although most of the tests are in agreement with a possible flux model, some results still lack an interpretation, probably due to limits of the experimental setup.

From the Conclusion section of the paper:

From the collected data the following conclusions can be drawn.

(a) The AHE occurrence is correlated with fast loading or unloading of the wire. In the case of unloading however, after a short time, the AHE vanishes.
(b) When loading/unloading occurs slowly, AHE is significantly reduced.
(c) A state of oscillation seems to be the most efficient since it produces AHE for a longer time with respect to fast loading or unloading (especially when a dielectric barrier discharge occurs).
(d) Loading and unloading occurrence, as assumed from R/R0 and variation in reactor pressure, strongly supportthe key role of deuterium flux (see [14] for a definition of flux).

There are additional external conditions, such as high temperature, low pressure, purity of the gas that facilitate the AHE

Mizuno Posts Experimental Data

Thanks to LION for pointing out that on LENR-Forum, Tadahiko Mizuno has joined in the comments and posted some interesting graphics. The link to the thread is here:

Mizuno writes: “. This is the only data I can publish now, but let’s make a detailed announcement after applying for a patent. The CF phenomenon is absolutely true. It can be controlled very easy. However, the mechanism is still unknown. When the data comes out, an excellent researcher will give an answer. There is still much to study. Let’s do our best. Don’t lose to Corona. Believe in the future and advance.”

His graphics can be seen here:

A couple show experimental data, one with an ‘activated reactant’ and one without:



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More from Rossi on the Physics Behind the E-Cat

How does Andrea Rossi achieve a claimed self-sustaining 5 kW of power (4 kW electricity and 1 kW of heat) from a cube 20 x 20 x 20 cm (most of which he says comprises a passive cooling system) from a miniscule amount of fuel when almost all physicists would say it is impossible?

In previous comments regarding the mechanism behind the E-Cat, Rossi has talked about zero point gravity, Aharonov-Bohm effect, the Casimir effect and zitterbewegung (German for “jittery motion”). In the commment below, posted yesterday on the Journal of Nuclear Physics, he proposes a possible theoretical explanation:

Andrea Rossi
August 5, 2020 at 3:34 AM
In the cited reference 14 is proposed a “fundamental connection” between Aharonov-Bohm equations and an electron, based on a geomatric interpretation of the electron wave-function phase.
This approach suggests me that it is possible to create electron condensates exploiting the Aharonov-Bohm effect, caused by the dependence of the electron wave-function phase from electromagnrtic potentials, so that a voltage pulse with a due rise time may generate a variation of the Zitterbewegung of the electrons, an increase of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the formation of clusters of electrons in coherence of phase, generating lower entropy and a consequent decrease of thermal capacity and freedom degrees, with energy transfer to electrons not in phase.
This is my opinion. It may be wrong, but the Ecat experiment may suggest it could be correct. This also could explain the absence of ionizing radiations and the energy gain.
Warm Regards,
See carefully the references 14, 7,9,2 on

Today he added this comment in response to a question about whether the environment allows for the production of resonances.

Andrea Rossi
August 6, 2020 at 2:39 AM
Those electrons configurations can generate, in presence of protons, compact neutral aggregates at a scale of 10^-12 m, between the atomic size and the nuclear size, made by a coherent chain of bosonic electrons with protons located in the center of the ZBV orbits. A criticalthreshold of the density of electrons is important for such a phenomenon and depends on the temperature of the cathod.
In this kind of environment the creation-annihilation of virtual particles is possible.
Warm Regards,

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Rossi: New E-Cat SKL ‘Revolutionary, Masterpiece of My Life’

Andrea Rossi posted this comment on the Journal of Nuclear Physics today:

Andrea Rossi
July 31, 2020 at 12:49 PM
Aleksei Savchenko and All Readres of the JoNP:
Just finished now my job of today, started early this morning at 5.30 A.M.
In September, Covid 19 permitting, we will have an important third party nominated by a Partner that will control the measurements remaking them. Therefore for now you are just taking my word, right or wrong as it might be, albeit I think I am right. The new Ecat SKL is the masterpiece of my life. It works in closed loop and generates the electric energy to fuel itself, plus generates 4 kWh/h of electric energy. I consumed only 130 Wh/h to flow away the thermal energy that is irradiated from the Ecat ( about 1 kWh/h of thermal energy is in total emitted ).
The volume of the Ecat reactor is in total 100 cubic cm, while the whole is contained in a heat dissipator box whose dimensions are cm 20 x 20 x 20, plus we have outside it the control box, which is extremely complex and does not dissipate heat thanks to passive cooling systems that are very efficient. More work has to be done, but now for a couple of weeks I will take my holidays, because I am very tired. A big step forward has been done. We should possibly have an electric engine with infinite autonomy, it seems. We’ll see.
Warm Regards,

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Comments on the ‘Rossi Effect’ (Eric Ashworth)

The following post has been submitted by Eric Ashworth.

July 26, 2020 at 2:46 AM
Dear Andrea,
in your paper
you cite: “In paragraph ‘Nuclear Reactions in Distant Collisions’, E.P. Wigner hilights their importance in nuclear transfer reactions: ‘The fact that nuclear reactionsof the type 197Au+14N -> 198Au+113N take place at energies at which colliding nuclei do not come in contact is an interesting though little -advertised discovery”: can you explain where is the link of this discovery with the theoretical bases of the Ecat SK operation ?

The question by Anonymous refers to colliding nuclei. From my own understanding and that provided by Andrea Rossi there are no collisions between nuclei. Andrea says the distance involved in the interactions is between the atomic and nuclear scale, in other words it involves a reaction totally unfamiliar with present day academic understanding i.e. entailing a major problem in the understanding of LENRs.

The Compton wavelength is not a fixed wavelength but variable with regards the value of the gravity that produces the wave. The content of the energy of the wave is dependent upon the magnetic force. What magnetic force?. The magnetic force of a Casimir which is an effect produced between two integrating gravity values i.e. a manufactured gravity value either artificial or as that in nature. These gravity values can be referred to as either exotic vacuum objects (EVOs) or virtual particles (VPs) or that of a ballerina. Whichever is preferred all contain a specific gravity value with a magnetic force of attraction dependent upon the magnitude of their zero point of gravity/energy.

An EVO is basically a gravitational transformer with a magnetic attractive force that gravitates hydrogen within and because of magnetic law courses ejection out at a Compton wavelength pertaining to the magnitude of its zero point gravity i.e. the further in, the further out due to a transition of its energy and the greater its velocity the greater its penetration on any surrounding material substance that results in a breakdown of atomic substance into that of active wave energy. It’s a natural process in nature that when artificially produced provides an almost unlimited amount of cheap clean energy. When fully understood as a reaction involving the understanding of gravity and how it transitions energy. The mechanics of the process will be as easy to understand as the workings of a battery and its electrical effects.

Regards Eric Ashworth

Rossi Describes the Core of his Effect in a Nutshell

If you want to know what Andrea Rossi believes is the core of his effect, he has provided a short statement today about it on the Journal of Nuclear Physics in response to a question regarding his theory:

July 26, 2020 at 2:46 AM
Dear Andrea,
in your paper
you cite: “In paragraph ‘Nuclear Reactions in Distant Collisions’, E.P. Wigner hilights their importance in nuclear transfer reactions: ‘The fact that nuclear reactionsof the type 197Au+14N -> 198Au+113N take place at energies at which colliding nuclei do not come in contact is an interesting though little -advertised discovery”: can you explain where is the link of this discovery with the theoretical bases of the Ecat SK operation ?

Andrea Rossi
July 26, 2020 at 3:55 AM
The core of my paper is that at a distance intermediate between the atomic and the nuclear scale, in the order of magnitude of the electron Compton wavelength, the effects of magnetic force, Casimir force and quantum vacuum/virtual particles play a fundamental role.
Warm Regards,

It’s not very detailed, and of course it needs to be verified experimentally, but maybe this statement can be useful for those trying to figure out what Rossi believes makes the E-Cat work.

Regarding the difference between the atomic and nuclear scale, I found this explanation on the PhysLink website useful:

What is the difference between atomic and nuclear physics? Really short and non-informative answer would be that one deals with atoms, while the other deals with nuclei.

Of course, nucleus is a part of the atom. So what is it that separates these two branches of physics? Atomic physics deals with the properties of atoms, which are mainly due to their electron configuration. The nucleus is also involved, but only with its overall properties. As far as atomic physics is concerned, the nucleus is a single massive particle, with spin, mass, and charge. The internal workings of the nucleus are irrelevant.

Nuclear physics, on the other hand, deals only with nuclei. It studies the structure of nuclei, and their reactions and interactions.

The distance scales involved are inherently different – atomic physics deals with distances of the order of nanometers – (10-9 m) while nuclear physics deals with distances of the order of femtometers (10-15 m).

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Rossi Preparing ‘Exponentially Superior’ E-Cat SKL For Tests

Andrea Rossi has stated that he has been working on developing a higher density version of the E-Cat SKL, and from the following Q&A, it seems that it is not far away from being put into action:

July 23, 2020 at 7:03 AM
Dr Rossi,
Can you make a comparision between the complexity of the Ecat SKL first module and the new one you are making with a much higher power density ?

Andrea Rossi
July 23, 2020 at 8:10 AM
The new Ecat SKL has a much more complex structure, albeit it has the same dimensions. I’d say that the last one has a technology exponentially superior.
We are still mounting it and it should be ready for the first tests within the end of this week.
Warm Regards,

We don’t know what the initial power output of the the SKL version 1 is, so it makes it hard to guess what the new one will be. Rossi has stated interest in having an SKL powerful enough to be used in electric vehicles, so perhaps he is trying to reach levels similar to those of the current EV batteries on the market.

He continues to talk about a public presentation, and recently stated that he expects it to be this year, but only when Covid-19 problems are improved. So we are still in the dark about many things surrounding the E-Cat SKL, and may be for some time to come.

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Rossi ‘Thinks’ Zero Point Energy is Source E-Cat’s Power

Here’s an interesting Q&A from the Journal of Nuclear Physics today:

July 16, 2020 at 1:47 AM
Dr Rossi,
Does have your effect in the Ecat SKL its primary source in the point zero energy ?

Andrea Rossi
July 16, 2020 at 2:46 AM
I think so,
Warm Regards,

A summary about zero-point energy (ZPE) from Wikipedia:

Zero-point energy (ZPE) is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system may have. Unlike in classical mechanics, quantum systems constantly fluctuate in their lowest energy state as described by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.[1] As well as atoms and molecules, the empty space of the vacuum has these properties. According to quantum field theory, the universe can be thought of not as isolated particles but continuous fluctuating fields: matter fields, whose quanta are fermions (i.e., leptons and quarks), and force fields, whose quanta are bosons (e.g., photons and gluons). All these fields have zero-point energy.[2] These fluctuating zero-point fields lead to a kind of reintroduction of an aether in physics,[1][3] since some systems can detect the existence of this energy; however, this aether cannot be thought of as a physical medium if it is to be Lorentz invariant such that there is no contradiction with Einstein’s theory of special relativity.[1]

Physics currently lacks a full theoretical model for understanding zero-point energy; in particular, the discrepancy between theorized and observed vacuum energy is a source of major contention.[4] Physicists Richard Feynman and John Wheeler calculated the zero-point radiation of the vacuum to be an order of magnitude greater than nuclear energy, with a single light bulb containing enough energy to boil all the world’s oceans

ZPE is one of those fields that has been discussed and theorized in the world of science (and science fication) and has fascinating possibilities, but to this point, no technology has come to market that harnesses ZPE, but maybe if Rossi is correct, the E-Cat can change all that.

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Rossi: Clifford Algebra Unlocks the Mechanism of the E-Cat

Here is an interesting Q&A from the Journal of Nuclear Physics regarding the connection between the Aharonov-Bohm and Casimir effects and the E-Cat, in light of two papers that readers had posted on the Journal of Nuclear Physics for Andrea Rossi’s attention:

1. Anastasovsky et. al. “Aharonov-bohm effect as the basis of electromagnetic energy inherent in the vacuum” Foundations of Physics Letters,. 2002

2. Cole and Puthoff: “Extracting energy and heat from the vacuum”, Phys. Rev., 1993,

Gerard McEk posted this question regarding these papers:

Gerard McEk
July 11, 2020 at 9:41 AM
Dear Andrea,
Recent comments of Tonio and Pekka Janhunen referring to papers of the Aharonov-Bohm and Casimir effects seem confirming your ResearchGate publication. Apparently you weren’t aware of these, otherwise you would have referred them in your paper. Do these papers just confirm of what you have found or do they give you and your team a better understanding of everything you are seeing? It all looks very promising now.
I’m sure you will win this time the tennis game with your wife!
Kind regards, Gerard

Rossi’s reply:

Andrea Rossi
July 11, 2020 at 10:20 AM
Gerard McEk:
You are right, I was not aware of these papers, otherwise I would put them in the references.
These publications surely corroborate what I wrote on Researchgate. The main difference is that the the authors did not use the Clifford algebra, using instead the normal algebra: this wraps up their theoretical intuition in the fog of a complicated mathematical formalism that makes them lose the view of the actual electrons matter. Where we see the spiral movement of the electron, they see a space tortion. Closest to what I wrote is the Nobel lecture of Dirac, wherein he had the intuition of the zitterbewegung and of the fact that an electron, although a Fermion, can have vibrations at the speed of light, while his trajectory has a slower speed.
The sole thing your comment is wrong about is the point related to my tennis familiar confrontations.
Warm Regards,

So it seems that Rossi believes that using Clifford algebra is very important in order to understand the real mechanism behind the ‘Rossi effect’.

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Aharonov-Bohm Effect as the Basis of Electromagnetic Energy Inherent in the Vacuum” (Paper with Connection to Rossis Theory))

A reader of the Journal of Nuclear Physics posted a link to a paper published in 2002 by in Foundations of Physics Letters by Anastasovsky, et. al. titled “Aharonov-bohm effect as the basis of electromagnetic energy inherent in the vacuum”

Andrea Rossi states on the JONP that he finds this article very encouraging to him because in his 2019 paper “E-Cat SK and long-range particle interactions”, he cites the Ahranov-Bohm effect as playing a possible role in the formation of dense electron clusters. Rossi states that he theorized that “along the theory of Aharonov-Bohm it is possible to get energy from a decrease of entropy.”

Here is the link to the 2002 article:


The Aharonov-Bohm effect shows that the vacuum is structured, and that there can exist a finite vector potentialA in the vacuum when the electric field strengthE and magnetic flux densityB are zero. It is shown on this basis that gauge theory produces energy inherent in the vacuum. The latter is considered as the internal space of the gauge theory, containing a field made up of components ofA, to which a local gauge transformation is applied to produce the electromagnetic field tensor, a vacuum charge/current density, and a topological charge g. Local gauge transformation is the result of special relativity and introduces spacetime curvature, which gives rise to an electromagnetic field whose source is a vacuum charge current density made up ofA and g. The field carries energy to a device which can in principle extract energy from the vacuum. The development is given forU(1) andO(3) invariant gauge theory applied to electrodynamics.”

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