Date and Time Set for the ‘Commercial, Not Scientific’ E-Cat Presentation

Andrea Rossi posted today pn the Journal of Nuclear Physics the date and time of the the January Presentation:

Andrea Rossi
November 13, 2018 at 7:51 AM
JPR:
1- the streaming will begin at 9 A.M. US Eastern Time and will last 2 hours
2- the video will remain on youtube and a link will be maintained in our website http://www.leonardocorporation.com or http://www.ecat.com
Warm Regards,
A.R.

Having it early in the morning US time is a good idea, as it allows for daytime viewing in North and South America, Europe and Africa. Our friends in East Asia, and Australasia and the Pacific will have to get up early, or go to bed later.

Regarding the type of presentation this is to be, Rossi has not published details yet, but has written:

Andrea Rossi
November 9, 2018 at 10:38 AM
John C Evans:
Thanks to you for your kind attention to the work of our team.
The aim of the January 31st presentation is not to get a validation. We are presenting a service that is based on an industrial production, not on a prototype that needs to be validated. The goal of the presentation is commercial, not scientific and has to be object of clear distinction from a work of R&D, that we continue to do, and of theoretical study, that we continue to do.
We are prepared to answer the questions we will receive: any kind of questions.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

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Bob Greenyer’s Presentation at Sochi Conference

Bob Greeyer has posted a new video on YouTube of his presentation on October 4th 2018 at the Sochi, Russia LENR conference. His talk is titled “Seek <&> Share”

Bob analyzes various structures in fuels used in LENR experiments and provides some of his thoughts on what he thinks is going on to make these structures.

The slides from the presentation can be downloaded at this link: https://drive.google.com/file/d/16T533MVQQZJ-GYS5RIXfrmUFBF63QBeX/view

E-Cat Calculator for Presentation (Gerard McEk)

I received the following spreadsheet from Gerard McEk with this explanation:

“I thought it would be good if you would verify the SK output power on the 31st of January 2019.

“I made a little spreadsheet to calculate this.

“You put in the output power (20,000 W) and a delta temperature (difference between in- and output temperature in C or K) and the period in which you collect water, and this spreadsheet calculates the amount of water that should be collected (in litres or kg, doesn’t matter).”

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1N0mZF6LVrcWTTz8I4zcJfQwND2PY8q79GPVMacfA6JI/edit?usp=sharing

I told Gerard that I would be very happy to use this calculator, providing that the information is made available at the presentation. At this point we don’t know exactly what information will be provided at the January presentation. Andrea Rossi has made a few comments on the Journal of Nuclear Physics, such as saying that the temperature of the water before and after passing through the heat exchanger will be shown, and also that data related to the current going into the controller will be presented.

But I think it’s a good idea to be prepared, so I will be happy to report on anything that is available and enter it into the spreadsheet. People viewing the presentation online will probably be able to see much of the data also.

Gerard has said he would be happy to alter this sheet based on suggestions too.

T

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20 kW from a Standard AC Power Outlet?

I have been asking Andrea Rossi some questions regarding the power outlet that can operate the 20 kW E-Cat SK reactor:

Frank Acland
November 4, 2018 at 7:43 PM
Dear Andrea,

Does the controller to the E-Cat SK plug into a regular AC wall socket, or is a different kind of connection required?

Andrea Rossi
November 5, 2018 at 12:57 AM
Frank Acland:
It ia a regular plug-in outlet.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

Frank Acland
November 5, 2018 at 12:31 PM
Dear Andrea,

Thank you for your answer,

1. So by a “regular plug-in outlet”, you mean a regular domestic socket you would use for a computer, TV, etc.
2. Would any regular domestic socket in the USA, Europe, Asia, etc. (they differ slightly in voltage and amps depending on country) be able to operate a single 20 kW E-Cat SK?
3. Would the E-Cat SK be able to operate with AC at either 50 or 60 Hz?

Frank Acland:
1- yes
2- yes, it is very easy to convert
3- we make the control panels fit for the voltage and frequency they have to operate with
Warm Regards,
A.R.

I think this is quite useful and potentially important information. We know that in previous demonstrations there have been questions about the measurement of input power. However if the E-Cat SK is plugged into a regular AC power outlet, even if Rossi does not provide an exact measurement of input power going into the controller, we will know the maximum possible amount of power in because AC power outlets are standardized.

In the USA, the standard residential circuits are either 15 or 20 amps at 110 volts. So the maximum load that can be put on a single power outlet is 2400 W. Beyond that, the circuit breaker will trip and you have no power. If the E-Cat can be demonstrated to be operating at 20 kW, and it is shown to be plugged into a standard power outlet and it is not tripping the circuit breaker, then it will be clearly running at ‘overunity’ — the COP would be at least close to 10.

So this will be something to look for at the January demonstration: what is the E-Cat plugged into, and what is the maximum possible load it can handle — plus, can Rossi actually demonstrate that the SK is running at 20 kW. So far he has said that at the presentation he will be using the E-Cat to heat water, and that he will be showing the temperature of the water at both the input and the output.

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Rossi: 20 kW E-Cat SK to be Shown Working at January Presentation

There have been some questions and comments on the Journal of Nuclear Physics recently about what will be shown at the scheduled January 31 E-Cat presentation. Andrea Rossi has announced that the largest E-Cat SK that he can make for now is 20 kW, and says that this will be the model of the E-Cat that will be presented.

Here  are a few questions and comments on the subject:

Frank Acland
November 2, 2018 at 4:09 PM
Dear Andrea,
What is the size of the 20 kW E-Cat SK? Will this be shown at the upcoming presentation?
Thank you very much,
Frank Acland

Andrea Rossi
November 3, 2018 at 3:52 AM
Frank Acland:
It will be shown at the presentation.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

Mark Saker
November 3, 2018 at 7:22 AM
Dr. Rossi,

For the presentation in January you have said that you will show the Ecat SK in operation.
Do you mean
a) A single Ecat SK heating some water with digital display of the water temperature on both ends
b) Multiple ecat SK heating some water with temperature readouts
c) Multiple Ecat SK driving a turbine?

Something else?

Many Thanks and I wish you success
Mark Saker

Andrea Rossi
November 3, 2018 at 9:14 AM
Mark Saker:
a
Warm Regards,
A.R.

Drew G.
November 2, 2018 at 4:30 PM
Dr. Rossi:

You may have already answered this question so forgive me if you previously did so. Will you have an independent engineer present at the 31 January industrialization demonstration responsible validating the accuracy of all the test and measurement equipment utilized as well as the resulting measurements? I’m sure all your followers on this website can suggest one if you haven’t already done so. Continued success and I look forward to 31 January after following your progress since 2011.

Andrea Rossi
November 3, 2018 at 3:51 AM
Drew G.:
No, we will not have any engineer to validate anything. It will be a presentation of a service supplied by means of an industrialized product, not a validation test.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

From these responses, its sound like the presentation will be just Andrea Rossi and/or some of his team members operating the E-Cat, displaying it, and talking about the business plan of selling heat, similar to any company introducing a new product or service. Rossi/Leonardo will be in full control of the event, and there will be no third party validation taking place, which I know many people were hoping for. Nevertheless, I think it will be an interesting event, as is any event involving the E-Cat (for me at least), and I hope to learn as much as I can. No doubt there will be considerable scrutiny from supporters and critics alike, as there has been in the past.

Ben Franklin, the first Cold Fusion Researcher?

Thanks to Bob Greenyer for the following post which provides an interesting historical perspective about LENR

E. H. Lewis in August 2006 notes that Benjamin Franklin may have been one of the earliest ‘Cold Fusion’ researchers all the way back in the 1700s.

“Microscopic Ball Lightning” by E. H. Lewis Proceedings Ninth International Symposium on Ball Lightning, ISBL-06, 16-19 August 2006, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.  http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/LewisEmicroscopi.pdf

“For example, several hundred years ago, Benjamin Franklin as a part of his research which helped to establish the paradigm of electrical and heat fluids for physics, studied what he called, ironically, “cold fusion” phenomena. By this term he meant the anomalous effect of lightning strikes on metallic objects. These metallic objects, such as coins in a pocket or a sword in a scabbard, seemed to have melted, but he thought it was odd that there was no trace of burning or scorching of the material around the objects, as would be expected if the metals became hot enough to melt. He called this phenomenon “cold fusion” because the objects fused though they were cold. The modern cold fusion phenomenon of atoms fusing or changing behavior is really a part of this same effect of atoms behaving anomalously under stressful conditions such as the presence of BL or electricity.”

And further on in the same document Ed notes:

“K. Shoulders published Figs. 6 and 7 as an example of this behavior of material(19). He wrote that two plasmoids passed all the way through a sample of aluminum oxide, and then hit a 6-micrometer-thick sample of aluminum that was coated with wax and passed through that also. The two plasmoids left the two small holes in the aluminum sample as shown in Fig. 6. Fig. 7 is a magnification of one of the entry pits into the aluminum target. He reported that the plasmoid passed all the way through the aluminum sample target also. The white deposit around the holes is aluminum oxide from the aluminum oxide sample. He reports that though the aluminum oxide atoms traveled from the aluminum oxide sample to spread themselves on the aluminum target sample, they were not hot. He wrote that the atoms of aluminum oxide had spread themselves out on the target to a thickness of a 1-atom layer, but a coating of wax on the sample was not melted at all. He wrote: “Aluminum oxide has a melting point of 2,050 degrees centigrade, and yet, it has not raised the temperature of the thin substrate material in any perceptible way. Even a thin coating of low temperature wax on the surface, to serve as a temperature indicator, remains undisturbed.(19)”

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CERN Research Hints at Possible New Particle Discovery

Thanks to Axil for posting about an interesting article from the Scitech Europa website published on October 31, titled “Ghost particle possibly detected at CERN”

Ghost particle possibly detected at CERN

From the article:

“Unexplained “bumps” appeared in data produced by the team’s multipurpose Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector, which may show traces of an as yet unidentified ghost particle around twice the size of a carbon atom. Two separate analyses of the data indicated a build-up of muons, or heavy electrons, in the detector – if the data is accurate, it indicates a new particle with a mass of 28GeV, around a quarter of the mass of a Higgs Boson particle.”

It will apparently take about a year to determine if this data is evidence of a previously unknown particle.

3 kW Heat Burst Reported in Experiment Using Copper, Nickel, Zirconia and Hydrogen Gas

Thanks to Jed Rothwell for posting a link on the vortex-l mailing list of a paper published on the Researchgate website from a group of Japanese researchers at Kobe University using a Copper, Nickel, Zirconia mixture in Hydrogen gas, with heat applied.

The article is: “Anomalous Heat Burst by CNZ7 Sample and H-Gas” by Yokose, Toyoshi & Takahashi, Akito & Takahashi, Koh & Furuyama, Yuichi. (2018). The paper will be presented at the JCF19 Meeting, Nov. 9-10, 2018, Iwate University, Morioka, Japan

From the abstract:

“Repeatability of anomalous heat effect (AHE) by the interaction of nano-composite CNZ(Cu1Ni7/zirconia) sample1,2, and H-gas at 200- 300 degree C RC (reaction chamber) condition was studied.In this paper, we report a large heat burst (ca.130 Wpeak by oil-flow calorimetry) event by CNZ7sample(ca. 1kg, Cu1Ni7/Zirconia) and H-gas interaction under elevated temperature.”

The full text can be read at this link.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328547673_Anomalous_Heat_Burst_by_CNZ7_Sample_and_H-Gas

Low Energy Nuclear Reactions – Is the mechanism simple electro magnetic resonance? (Lamaan Ball)

The following article has been submitted by Lamaan Ball

Low Energy Nuclear Reactions – Is the mechanism simple electro magnetic resonance?

For some years now I have followed the claims of Cold Fusion given by Pons and Fleischmann. As a student of physics, this potential source of energy was exciting and continues to be so. It seems to most that this was disproved many years ago, but to those paying attention, there have been many efforts to reproduce the effects seen and some claim quite a lot of success.

The closest to getting a commercial product seems to be Andrea Rossi, and some of his work has been reproduced. Different theories try to explain how this works. Here I will attempt to explain how I think it happens. I will try to keep the explanation simple enough for anyone to understand.

When a flute player blows across the hole, waves are formed inside the flute of air pressure dependent on the length of the flute. The frequency depends on the dimensions of the space it bounces around and whether or not a note comes out depends on blowing fast enough to overcome the loss of energy of the sound escaping. In this action we turn white noise (blowing) into very specific frequencies of sound. This is the process of resonance.

Similar mechanisms work with other kinds of waves. In particular, electric fields in conducting materials could be made to resonate. If we take a conducting stick of metal and subject it to an electric or magnetic field pulse, a wave will bounce back and forth in the metal travelling at or close to the speed of light. Repeating the pulses at a rate before this wave decays will produce a ‘ringing’ of the metal at its resonant frequencies determined by its dimensions. For example, a high frequency electro-magnetic field pulsing on a metal rod of about 12 cm, should produce electro-magnetic field waves inside the metal of a similar length as a microwave oven. This could be used to provide a highly efficient way to convert water into hydrogen and oxygen gasses. It is not free energy in this instance but it might be a very efficient way to store energy as hydrogen and oxygen gasses that when recombined could power a car.

This is not nuclear though. In Andrea Rossi’s patents the key ingredients are a mixture of nickel and lithium hydrides (to read more see for example http://e-catworld.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Parkhomovetal.pdf)

What appears to be happening are isotope changes, with neutrons migrating from lithium into nickel. To free a lithium neutron would take energy at least equal to the change in binding energy for a lithium atom to change from Li7 to Li6, Li7 has more binding energy of neutrons than Li6. Working out how much energy is needed to free a neutron will give us the energy of a photon needed to do it. The photon would come from a resonating electro-magnetic wave. Knowing the photon energy will tell us its frequency. This will tell us the size of the distance needed for resonances. Skip the next paragraph if you want to avoid the mathematics.

Li7 has a binding energy per nucleon of 5.60629 MeV giving it a total binding energy of 39.244037MeV. Li6 has a binding energy per nucleon of 5.332345Mev giving it a total binding energy of 31.99407Mev. If we want a reaction of Li7 + gamma -> Li6 + free neutron, then the photon (gamma) must provide the energy difference. This is 39.244037MeV – 31.99407Mev = 7.249967MeV. This gives us the frequency by E=hf for a photon. So the energy in Joules (SI units) is E=7.249967MeV x 1.60E-13J/MeV = 1.16E-12 Joules, which give us f=1.16E-12/6.63E-34 = 1.75E+21Hz. To get the resonant distance needed for such a photon, we can say that the speed of the wave is close to the speed of light. The time of one oscillation will give us a distance for a resonance mode. This is then 1/f = 5.70E-22 seconds. How far does light travel in this time? d=ct where d is distance and c is the speed of light and t is time. This gives us a distance of 3E+8 x 5.7E-22 = 1.7E-13 metres.

This distance is somewhere between the typical size of atoms at about 1E-10 metres and atomic nuclei at about 1E-15 metres. So what is the resonance we could get? It turns out that when atoms form ionic crystals the electron from one atom is essentially moved to the other atom making it into a cation. This gives us what is called an ionic atom radius. For hydrogen that has only one electron, when it is bound in a solid such as a hydride its size is 1.2E-12 metres which is in spitting distance of our distance needed for a resonance. Resonances over this distance could be built up with electro-magnetic noise and regular electro-magnetic pulses to stop their decay like blowing on a flute produces a note. In fact it produces many notes. The resonant frequencies are all the multiples of half a wavelength so although the main energy of the resonant waves has frequency determined by half the distance, other frequencies are produced for waves at fractions of the length of the resonant distances such as 1/2 the distance, 1/4 the distance, 1/8 the distance. A resonance at 1/8th the ionic hydrogen size would be just about right size to create photons that could release neutrons from Li7.

If this slow neutron was absorbed by Ni58 the binding energy it would gain is 59 x 8.73657 – 58 x 8.732041  = 8.999Mev meaning for each atom isotope transformation by this mechanism we have a gain of energy

Li7 + Ni58 => Li6 + Ni59 + 1.75 MeV

For gram of fuel this yields approx.  (6.02214179E+23)/65 x 1.75 x 1.16E-12MeV/J = 18,807,612,052J/g which is 18TJ/Kg this compares to an energy density of diesel fuel of 48 MJ/Kg

This means that a teaspoon of fuel could run your car for a year.

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No Mystery: The E-Cat QX Explained By Lost Technologies (‘The Director’)

The following post has been submitted by ‘The Director’

No Mystery: The E-Cat QX Explained By Lost Technologies

Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat QX technology is a fascinating feline that combines multiple physical phenomena to produce both thermal and electrical output power. Allegedly producing kilowatts or more power at ultra high input-to-output ratios, the emergence of this technology could be truly paradigm shattering – with far reaching consequences that could impact all aspects of human civilization. If verified to perform as claimed, its introduction could be the catalyst that accelerates our species towards a technologically advanced state beyond the dreams of current science fiction writers. This document is an effort to describe and share the author’s best guess as to many details of the device. Many elements may be missing and some could be flat out wrong. But after researching a list of potentially related technologies including Paulo Correa’s PAGD generator, Alexander Chernetsky’s “self generating discharge” tube, Randell Mills’ hydrino, Leif Holmlid’s Ultra Dense Hydrogen theories, Kenneth R. Shoulders’ discovery of EVOs, and several others including information about the E-Cat QX, the author believes the information in this document is worthy of consideration.

Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat QX/SK seems to be constructed of two large electrodes (alleged to be constituted of nickel) with rounded faces positioned within a cylinder of what may be a form of fused quartz or other heat resistant material. To insure the QX remains compliant with his granted patent application, Rossi maintains that it also utilizes lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4). Hence, a Ni-LiAlH4 combination. Likely, only a small quantity is utilized and subsequently vaporized by the high temperature plasma, creating a low pressure atmosphere within the cylinder. After an initial higher voltage impulse at startup, pulsed DC voltage is applied at around one hundred kilohertz. The claimed result is both thermal power being generated and electrical impulses that are transmitted back to the power supply – resulting in the need for a power hungry cooling system to keep the temperature of the electronic control system within operational tolerances.

For a description of the Stockholm demonstration and further information about what was learned about the QX, you can visit Mats Lewan’s website: https://animpossibleinvention.com/2017/11/26/reflections-on-the-nov-24-e-cat-qx-demo-in-stockholm/

Many aspects of the QX resemble other alternative energy technologies from decades past, including those of Chernetsky and Correa. Both of their systems utilized electrical discharges in a gaseous environment to produce a plasma resulting in excess power output: although they were both focused on electrical power generation.

An initial thought that comes to mind is that like these two systems, the electrodes of the QX likely produce surface protrusions perhaps appropriately described as similar to Taylor cones. These spike- like protrusions resulting from series of higher powered initial discharges produced an intense electric field amplification effect that reached a maximum potential at the sharp tip. If damaged or eroded away, the output of the PAGD (Correa) and Self Generating Discharge tube (Chernetsky) would fall down back to unity — a COP of 1.

Also, in a similar manner to these two systems, the author conjectures that the QX operates within the “abnormal glow discharge” zone of a plasma discharge which can be described as a “negative resistance” region at which current climbs while voltage drops. This is the area that the magic happens. If exceeded, the negative resistance effect will end, ordinary electrical resistance will appear, and quickly an “arc discharge” will form between the cathode and anode. Such an arc discharge is undesirable for multiple reasons: not only because it’s not in the proper “zone” for effects that will be subsequently described in this essay but also because the erosion rate of the cathode will skyrocket, destroying the Taylor cone.

Many design considerations need to be considered to reduce the chance of an arc discharge forming. Perhaps the most obvious consideration is the use of a resistor in the circuit of the power supply to restrict the current from reaching what would trigger an arc discharge. Additionally, a computerized control system should be utilized to control voltage and amperage levels. Yet another consideration is the choice of cathode material. Nickel may not be optimal. According to the patents of the Correas, the work function of materials should be considered. This is especially true with the E-Cat if you consider that the nickel electrodes – if they are solid nickel – are reasonably good thermionic emitters. At high temperatures, nickel electrodes will spew out electrons in a manner that may not be easily controlled, allowing for arc discharges and electrode erosion. This is due to its relatively low work function that permits electrons to escape its surface.

Examining the work functions of common metals, Platinum has a higher work function and is described in scientific literature as being a very poor thermionic emitter material, especially when not used in combination with dopants. Since Andrea Rossi has experience using platinum, and we know he has access to the material – purchasing a quantity from Johnson Matthey – he may use the metal to reduce the chance of unwanted thermionic emission. As not to eliminate nickel from the device, to maximize adherence to his “Fluid Heater” patent, it’s possible that the electrodes are only coated with platinum. This would not be a bad idea for yet another reason when considering the high temperatures within the QX. The melting point of platinum is 1,768C compared to 1,455C. A difference of a little over 300 degrees may not seem like a lot but could be critical in a hostile environment such as the plasma atmosphere of the QX.

The QX is also alleged to operate at very low voltages, below what would normally allow for a plasma column between two electrodes to exist. Interestingly, the interaction of atomic hydrogen and “atomic lithium” is alleged to induce a catalytic reaction according to Randell Mills of Brilliant Light Power. Mills claims that when atomic hydrogen contacts atomic lithium (in addition to a range of other catalytic elements) the electron orbit of the hydrogen atom shrinks to a fractional state. Regardless of whether whether you accept that an electron can orbit a proton below the ground state, Mills provides evidence of something fundamentally interesting occurring: a release of energy that produces “hot” hydrogen species, free electrons, and the creation of what he describes as a “resonant transfer plasma.” This resonant transfer plasma, according to Mills’ claims, can even be produced when a hot tungsten rod is exposed to a gaseous atmosphere of atomic hydrogen and one or more of a list of catalysts. In this case, the release of energy will create ionic species in the vicinity of the tungsten which creates a glow that’s visible to the naked eye. Moreover, Mills claims that the same reaction can allow for a plasma to be formed between two electrodes at between 1 and 2 volts per centimeter of distance between cathode and anode. This is a huge reduction that’s quite frankly impossible unless some little understood phenomena is taking place. Interestingly, it could explain the low operating voltage of the Quark. According to Mills’ theory and the experimental results of third parties, lithium is a catalyst for the generation of such a transfer resonant plasma! Since the QX utilizes lithium and hydrogen this effect should be present if this phenomena exists: which it seems to be.

This does not necessarily mean that hydrinos, exactly as described in Randell Mills patents and papers, are being formed. I think it likely means that the elements in the E-Cat and the devices of Black Light Power do convert hydrogen into another form while releasing a specific quanta of energy. However, very interestingly, before Randell Mills distanced himself from Cold Fusion (LENR), he speculated in two of his early patents that hydrinos could catalyze nuclear reactions. In this theory, the Coulomb barrier of the hydrino was weakened or reduced, so that hydrinos could more closely approach the nucleus of other atoms — dramatically increasing the probability of inducing nuclear reactions. To be fair, there are probably a dozen other theories about hydrogen atoms – sometimes with additional electrons – being converted into another form that could act as a catalyst for LENR. Whose to say which one is correct; the author of this paper does not wish to be bound by any one theory.

Before moving on, it should be noted that various noble gases such as helium and argon are also catalysts according to the theory of Randell Mills and have been confirmed by third parties. There has been some controversy on the internet about the color of the plasma produced in the QX. Apparently, certain individuals allege that it may have changed. A good reason for this could be that Andrea Rossi has performed tests with mixtures of various gaseous additives to enhance the basic LiAlH4 formula that falls under the Fluid Heater patent.

As mentioned previously, the system is pulsed with DC at around 100 khz – at least during the Stockholm demonstration. When a DC pulse is applied, the electric field amplification effect at the tip of the cathode ionizes the environment even further, releasing an “electron bunch” or a conglomeration of electrons. This could be considered an electric current. And as we know, an electric current produces a magnetic field. This changing magnetic field due to the Lorentz force can induce helical motion of the charged particles: the electrons, protons, noble gas ions, and lithium ions. These charged particles can form curly filaments that could be conceptualized as stretched out slinky – a common toy from a previous age. Under the proper electromagnetic conditions, the ends of these filaments can come together and produce toroidal loops. Negatively charged electrons would be moving along the outside of these “donut” shaped objects (which could be compared to a typical toroidal inductor with copper wire wrapped around the exterior) and positive ions would be moving within the body.

On the small scale, the objects that result could be described as micro-ball lightning or Kenneth R. Shoulders “Exotic Vacuum Objects” (EVOs). Moving upwards, such torodial plasmoids (a term coined by Bostic) could be considered as macro-scale spheromaks. Regardless of which term is used, they are self-organizing plasma structures. The effect that created them is the magnetic “pinch” effect which seems to be a phenomena that can take place on many different scales: nano, micro, and macro. But these structures may not only exist individually but could also be visualized as Russian nesting dolls: a larger plasmoid torus could contain or, perhaps, decompose and release a multitude of smaller structures.

Alexander Chernetsky’s Self Generating Discharge plasma tube was stated to also utilize the magnetic pinch effect. Considering only one of several of his devices, a transparent tube several inches in diameter and perhaps four or more feet long, when a critical current density was achieved, the pinch effect would transform his plasma into divided “cycloid” segments. When these circular rings appeared, the excess electrical input would show up.

Compared to Chernetsky or Correa’s devices, the QX is tiny, with a much smaller plasma channel. However, the principle of operation seems to be similar among all these devices. Andrea Rossi’s control box increases the voltage in a very abrupt manner (with a high rate of dv/dt) at a high rate of change. Since the device seems to be experiencing a negative resistance in the abnormal glow discharge zone, the rate of current change will be even greater – because the resistance falls as voltage increases. This sudden, non-equilibrium jolt pushes electrons suddenly and produces a powerful magnetic field: hence, a strong Lorentz force is felt by all charged ions. Perhaps aided by the presence of an externally applied magnetic field (more on this soon), a toroidal plasma vortex is formed (also known as a toroidal pinch).

From here energy producing effects start to occur. First, the plasma vortex or spheromak formed starts to cohere the zero point energy field and utilize electron-positron pairs from the vacuum to produce a powerful electric field — that accelerates electrons and sends a surge of power straight back to the power supply! Thus, the initial DC pulse into the QX results in two individual pulses: a forward pulse and a back pulse.

Here are some descriptions of this process in regards to the aforementioned systems of Chernetsky and Correa:

About the Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge Generator of Paulo Correa from “Power from Autoelectronic Emissions by P.N. Correa and A.N. Correa — http://www.aetherometry.com/Labofex_Plasma_Physics/Archive/PwrfromAEemissions.html

“In accordance with Aspden’s treatment of the Law of electrodynamics (23, 56, 95, 97), our invention of the XS NRG Power Generation System is made possible by the engraftment of the extraordinarily large PAGD reaction forces transduced by distinct plasma flows, as a surplus of electric energy in closed charge systems. To borrow the language of Prigogine, these apparently closed systems give rise to self-organizing structures that are in fact transiently open physical systems, when they elicit anomalous reaction forces under specific conditions of performance. It is as if, through the auto-electronic metal/plasma interaction and the self-extinguishing characteristic of the PAGD regime, electrical power is directly squeezed out of metal ‘in vacuo’, by virtue of a pulsatory interaction with the polarized ‘vacuum’ field energy.”

 

About Chernetsky’s Self Generating Discharge tube from “Vacuum Energy: A Breakthrough” by Andrei Samokhin — http://www.keelynet.com/energy/plasmafe.txt

“This is how Chernetsky explains his miraculous experiment: ‘The self-generating discharge emerges when the discharge current reaches a definite criticaldensity, when the magnetic fields they create ensure magnetization of plasma electrons and they begin to perform MOSTLY CYCLOID movements.  The interaction of currents with their magnetic fields forces the electrons to deviate to the CYLINDER-SHAPED discharge axis and the electrical field emerges.  It has proved to ‘switch on’ the physical vacuum: in this field the vacuum is polarized and consequently the virtual pairs begin to move in a definite direction, instead of chaotically.

“The virtual positrons accelerate plasma electrons, giving them part of their energy.  The current in the circuit builds up and additional energy is discharged on the resistor switched into the discharge circuit.  Clearly, only part of the tremendous vacuum energy is extracted.’”

 

From ‘Self-generating Electrical Discharge” by Alexander V. Frolov —

http://www.faraday.ru/chernetsky.pdf

“Technical aspects of experimental SGD device were not detailed by Chernetsky in [1] but he explained the ways to get SGD. By his definition, self-generating discharge is special type of electrical arc that can be created at certain value of density of discharge current. Since voltampere diagram of any arc consist of decreasing and increasing part, Chernetsky noted two ways for self-sustaining electrical oscillations: at first, small current way on the decreasing part of the diagram when the resistance of the arc is negative, and at second, great current way on the increasing part of the diagram when the arc plasma electrons are interacting with strong magnetic field of plasma (so called pinch-effect was found by Chernetsky in 1960th). First way seems me as most simple and effective way and there were produced some simple experiments to prove it [8]. But Alexander V. Chernetsky used the second way to get the self-sustaining oscillation in plasma. He noted: the pinch-effect produce the radial electrical field in the arc and corresponding radial magnetic field. In development of his explanation let me note: since the primary source create axial movement of changed particles between electrodes, the reason of radial separation and additional energy of the plasma particles is well-known Lorenz force. Positive feedback in this circuit is the next: pinch-effect compress the plasma in radial direction, then radial electromagnetic field interact with axially moving particles of plasma to increase radial separation, so the energy of plasma particles is increasing up to change of electrodes polarity that stop the arc process. The change is produced by plasma particle and the source is direct current source only. The changes of electrodes polarity are possible only if the energy of the particle is increased in process of the movement in the arc gap between electrodes. Capacity and inductive parameters of experimental device define the resonance frequency of the oscillations. Chernetsky tested 3MHz oscillations and duration of pulses was about 30 microseconds. He used voltage 600VDC (direct current source). The plasma was created in hydrogen at pressure about 0.1 T.”

Even more interesting, here is a description of the PAGD that could very well apply to the QX. from “Power from Autoelectronic Emissions by P.N. Correa and A.N. Correa — http://www.aetherometry.com/Labofex_Plasma_Physics/Archive/PwrfromAEemissions.html

“Given the self-pulsed characteristics of the autogenous PAGD regime, the pulse generator effectively functions as a simple DC inverter producing quasi regular large discontinuous “AC” pulses that, once filtered from the associated DC signal, can be directly utilized to power and control electromagnetic motors, relays and transformer circuits. This line of investigation culminated in the patented design of basic PAGD motor and other inverter circuits (91-92). This was the origin of the Labofex Motor Drive (LMD) which utilizes innovative motor principles based upon a total control of the variables affecting PAGD production (applied voltage, applied current, residual gas nature, pressure, electrode area, reactive gap distance, electrode geometry, cathode work-function, etc) (91-92). Similar applications would soon follow for transmission of the generated impulses across space, the design of DC inverters and of polyphasic systems (91-92).”

 

It seems to the author that by some mechanism  energy from the vacuum is being tapped by these systems, and the same is likely true for the QX. However, that’s not the end of the story. The “pinch” effect is also a mechanism that can induce nuclear reactions by compressing atoms together. If there is a form of hydrogen – perhaps configured to seem more neutron-like with a reduced charge – capable of inducing nuclear reactions with other atoms through weak interactions, then perhaps the pinch effect would be even more effective at inducing nuclear reactions. In this case, most likely, between hydrogen (modified in some manner) and lithium (or perhaps aluminum or even other hydrogen atoms). The effect would be that at every pulse of DC input, there would not only be energy extracted from the vacuum but nuclear reactions releasing MeVs of energy. This energy could be what is producing the tremendous heat in the QX. However, it could also serve to further ionize the gas in the interior of the reactor reducing the required constant input voltage.

In reality, there could be three sources of energy being utilized in the QX:

  1. The energy that’s released when hydrogen is transformed to another state that’s more susceptible to undergoing nuclear reactions (regardless if this means it has transformed into Mills’ hydrino or not). This is expected to be in the range of hundreds of keV per transformation.
  2. The energy that’s extracted from the vacuum that produces a powerful electric field that can burn out the power supply as has happened with both Correa’s and Chernetsky’s devices. With each DC pulse there are two pulses of output. One output push goes in the expected direction and the other slams back into the power supply.
  3. The energy from the nuclear reactions that take place during the pinches. This is probably where most of the energy comes from.

This system is complex enough that Rossi has many parameters to play around with, such as tuning the pulsing frequency to hit a resonance. Most likely, there’s a frequency range that’s best for different gaps between electrodes, different elemental compositions of the plasma, and different electrode geometries. Also, although there’s a self generating magnetic field produced by the discharge itself that’s capable of organizing the ions into vortexes, external magnetic fields could help augment the process. If you look at the known and accepted science of large scale spheromaks, external magnetic fields are used to aid their formation and manipulate them in many ways. I highly suspect that behind what may be platinum plated nickel rods are high temperature rated samarium cobalt permanent magnets. Or external magnetic fields could be applied via other mechanisms.

There are a few important facts, according to the theory provided in this document, that need to be addressed.

– The excess heat generation due to nuclear reactions seems to be primarily happening in the plasma rather than on the cathode surface or in the lattice.

– If magnets are being utilized to provide an external field, not only could they be helping aid the formation of the vortex structures but also could be helping protect the cathode surface. Two magnets in attraction to each other at either side of the reactor would produce what’s called a “magnetic mirror effect” which would cause charged particles to seek the area of reduced magnetic field strength between the two magnets.

– Andrea Rossi claims that the cathode surface is not being eroded. This could either be literally true or the Taylor cones could be regenerated as needed by allowing the control system to send a series of strong high current impulses that would repair them. The result could be a few seconds of reduced output every so often.

– To further increase the output, Andrea Rossi could add deuterium gas or LiAlD4 to increase the chance of D-D reactions during the pinches.

– X-Ray emissions would be a key signature of EVO/Spheromak/Plasmoid formation.

– According to Randell Mills, a resonant transfer plasma is self sustained for seconds. Since the pulse rate of the QX is thousands of hertz, there would be no need to use a high voltage to ionize the environment each pulse.

– A topic which is outside the scope of this essay is the choice of shielding Rossi may use around the Quark if there are any particles escaping. The author will save this discussion for a later paper.

Replication

The author of this paper feels shocked that more parties are not openly attempting to replicate the QX. Although many parties have replicated Rossi’s powder based systems utilizing Ni and LiAlH4, there have been few if any attempts to openly replicate this amazing system. Proof, beyond any possible doubt, that the QX works and performs as Rossi claims does not yet exist. However, by reviewing similar technologies it is reasonable to conclude that such a system as Rossi’s would likely produce excess energy. Therefore, it is hoped that qualified parties capable of following all needed safety protocols will seek to reproduce the effects reported.

System Overview

Platinum plated nickel rods with rounded faces with a micro-protrusion to enhance the electric field.

Samarium Cobalt magnets to back the nickel rods to provide an external magnetic field.

Fused Quartz cylinder for the reactor body. Rossi claims his is a custom creation.

Power supply with resistor(s) and computerized control system to remain in the abnormal glow discharge regime and avoid arc discharge.

Fuel in the form of LiAlH4, deuterium, and perhaps various noble gases.

Heat exchanger to transfer heat from fused quartz tube to a flow of water for calorimetry work.

Mechanism of Action

High rate of change DC discharges emit electron bunches from a protrusion on the cathode tip. The production of atomic hydrogen results in catalytic reactions that convert hydrogen atoms into a more neutron-like form, produce “hot” hydrogen atoms with hundreds of eV worth of energy, and produce a resonance transfer plasma that can be sustained at an extremely low voltage (allowing the next voltage pulse to be much lower due to the sustained plasma). The magnetic field of the electron bunch, along with any external magnetic fields present, induce the positively and negatively charged ions to self organize into toroidal or vortex structures. These structures cohere the active vacuum – perhaps extracting electron positron pairs – and generate a powerful electric field that accelerates electrons and sends them into the power supply. At the same time, nuclear reactions take place as the pinch effect squeezes the transformed hydrogen atoms into other atoms such as lithium. The resulting reactions release various forms of radiation: x-rays, gamma rays, and electromagnetic effects that could produce heat via electromagnetic induction in a conductive body. Particles may also be emitted that further ionize the environment reducing the voltage required to maintain the plasma. The reaction continues for some time with no additional fuel added to the reactor.

Consequences

Once this technology is verified and proven to work, many truths will be revealed. All at once, the reality of LENR, the reality of a range of previous radical technologies that never made it to commercialization, and the existence of an aether, a universal medium, with an unlimited well of energy to draw from will be revealed. From there, scientists and researchers will re-direct their efforts towards understanding the previously dismissed aetheric structure of the vacuum. Before long, all the forces of the universe including gravity, mass, and inertia will be understood.

Conclusion

The E-Cat QX/SK may represent the pinnacle of LENR technology while simultaneously providing for a way to extract energy from the active vacuum. If the ideas of the author are correct, the QX/SK would produce an almost limitless source of thermal and electrical energy that could be used for virtually any application.

 

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