Analysis of the presentation of E-Cat SK on 31 January 2019 (Valeriy Zatelepin)

Many thanks to reader Maya Todorova for providing the following translation of a video published by
Russian physicist Valeriy Zatelepin analyzes the E-Cat SK presentation of Andrea Rossi from 31 January 2019

Video in Russian, from 50:40 until 1:01:31
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5N_40tdFRbo

Analysis of the presentation of E-Cat SK on 31 January 2019
Valeriy Zatelepin
INLEAS Laboratory, Moscow

We have written a large article about the auto-oscillating process. It shall be published in the Proceedings of the 25th Russian conference, which took place in Adler in the last year, we have reported there this work.

Very important are not only the parameters of the plasma, but also the parameters of the supplying electrodes.

The common solution of the equations system which describes the current flow in the electrodes and in the plasma allows to come to the conclusion that there can exist very high frequency oscillating operating modes.

Transformation of the ideas in the last 7 years

Formerly (in the right column on the picture):
It was considered:
nickel powder, hydrogen, hydrogenation, heating through outer current,
and the ideology about nuclear reactions.

Typical temperature: 600 С
СОР = 3
Now (in the right column on the picture):
There is no information about powder.
Hydrogen ?
There is no discussion about nuclear reactions,
there is only discussion about electromagnetic processes with electrons.
Plasma discharge
Building of electron clusters
T ~ 8000 С
СОР = 10^7

My correspondence with Rossi about the hydrogen. As I started to analyze the presentation… he says nothing about if he uses hydrogen or not. So I wrote to him asking if he uses hydrogen. 6 minutes later he answered: Yes!

So could look like the block diagram of the E-Cat SK. This is the reactor, Rossi cools it in a chamber, where argon is circulating and the argon cools the reactor. In a heat exchanger the argon has to transfer his heat to the air, which then heats the room.

Possible flow chart of the heat generating element of the E-Cat SK.
Flow of the currents and the possible reactor arrangement. Anode, cathode, discharge … somehow in the hydrogen medium a discharge takes place. On the right (in the picture): the typical photo of this discharge. We conclude that there occurs a very high frequency process. Mister Rossi mentions nothing about it. You can not imagine how high is this frequency of 10^12.

Oscillogram

This isn’t a stationary process, we see this looking at the oscillogram of the typical current flow.
We see these constant pulsing emissions. Here is 1 milisecond between two vertical lines, along the axis, such is the sweep of the oscillograph.

I.e. there is a very high frequency… Even the oscillograph can not sweep… Each bar… If there would be an oscillograph which could sweep, we would see that there occur incredible things. Such typical images we have seen on our oscillograms about what occurs in our reactor.

Spectrum of the plasma radiation in the E-Cat SK, determination of the plasma temperature.
I analyze the spectrums which Rossi has recorded in the optical range.

He came to the conclusion that he has 8000 C and concluded about the energy. In my opinion he made a mistake of 5 and possibly of 10 times regarding the energy.

Criticism regarding the estimation of the temperature and of the thermal power
A nonstandard methodology is used. And there he made a mistake most likely in the blackness and most likely in the brightness temperature, which led to a 5 and possibly to a 10 times error regarding the energy.

He doesn’t measure it. Although he can measure it, but for some reason he doesn’t measure it, but calculates it.

The frequencies registered in the presentation don’t cover an important range
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION
Here is the scale of the electromagnetic waves. With the oscillograph Rossi measures here in the range of 1 MHz possibly until 10 MHz. An optical spectrometer is working, here is the optical range of frequency 10^15.And there is a gamma detector in the range of 10^20.

But the most important range from 10^8 until 10^12, about we talk in this auto-oscillating mode, this range isn’t covered by Rossi through any measuring devices. He possibly suspects that there is something, but he doesn’t measure anything there. And there are the most interesting processes.

Electrical flow chart of the reactor in auto-oscillating mode.

When you apply voltage, here is some resistance and so the energy is emmited on ?… and we gain a power. We have developed an electrical flow chart, which necessarily includes also capacitors and inductances and an additional resistance. Which shows that here a high frequency process can occur, which generates the energy. You simply don’t measure it.

Condition for the start of an auto-oscillating heating in discharge.

Here we derived a relation… When we achieve a certain electron density, then the frequency of the processes in the supplying electrodes and the frequency of the processes in the plasma (simply of the Langmuir oscillations) shall coincide, it shall be a resonance and then starts…. this is the condition for the start of the auto-oscillating mode.

Estimating of the concentrations of the free charges Ne

[Calculations shown in the video]

The process of the heat generation in E-Cat: auto-oscillating heating of the plasma.

Our understanding is that the main heat generation process is auto-oscillating heating of the plasma due to the outer electromagnetic field.

There are also interesting processes, we have spoken today about them, but Mr. Rossi doesn’t give any information about them in his presentation.

Researchers Report Neutron Production in Small Scale Fusion Experiments

Thanks to Sam for sharing an article from the Science Alert website about a team of researchers at the University of Washington who have been testing new approaches to achieving fusion energy on a smaller scale than the large hot Tokamak approaches that have proved to be very challenging.

https://www.sciencealert.com/a-breakthrough-revives-an-old-idea-for-nuclear-fusion-that-could-power-your-home

From the article:

Using a mix of 20 percent deuterium and 80 percent hydrogen, the team managed to hold stable a 50 centimetre (1.6 foot) long column of plasma enough to achieve fusion, evidenced by a signature generation of neutrons being emitted.

The team has published an article about their work in the American Physical Society’s Physical Review Letters titled “Sustained Neutron Production from a Sheared-Flow Stabilized Z inch”

https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.135001

Here is the abstract:

The sheared-flow stabilized Z pinch has demonstrated long-lived plasmas with fusion-relevant parameters. We present the first experimental results demonstrating sustained, quasi-steady-state neutron production from the fusion Z-pinch experiment, operated with a mixture of 20% deuterium/80% hydrogen by pressure. Neutron emissions lasting approximately 5μs are reproducibly observed with pinch currents of approximately 200 kA during an approximately 16μs period of plasma quiescence. The average neutron yield is estimated to be (1.25±0.45)×105neutrons/pulse and scales with the square of the deuterium concentration. Coincident with the neutron signal, plasma temperatures of 1–2 keV and densities of approximately 1017cm3 with 0.3 cm pinch radii are measured with fully integrated diagnostics.

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Rossi Now Seeking for ‘Infinite’ COP from E-Cat

It seems like Andrea Rossi is now seeking to do something that many people have been urging him to do for many years: make an E-Cat that can run independently without any external power source being necessary.

Gerard McEk asked this question:

Gerard McEk
April 17, 2019 at 7:55 AM
Dear Andrea,
Can you tell us if the E-Cat SK that you are testing for direct electricity production already produces more electricity then that the control system is using at the same time?
Thank you.
Kind regards, Gerard

Here is the reply:

Andrea Rossi
April 17, 2019 at 8:11 AM
Gerard McEk:
We are still in the R&D phase, but obviously that is what we want. If we succeed the COP becomes infinite. This is why I am now working on it at the maximum of my intellectual and physical force. Maybe it will be a failure, though.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

For years Rossi has been saying that it is necessary to have an external electrical input to the E-Cat control system for ‘safety reasons’, but it sounds like he has changed his opinion now, since now it appears he is now able to produce at least some electrical current directly from the E-Cat.

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LENR — A Primer (Gregory Daigle)

The following post has been submitted by Gregory Daigle.

I’ve been invited to make a presentation to a local meeting of technologists and software developers on the topic of LENR. I have my own idea of what to present as a primer on the topic, but would like to solicit input from E-Cat World readers on what information to present to a group of newbies on the topic. The presentation will be 30 minutes plus discussion and will be on April 27.

Currently I am looking for both important links, imagery and well structured synopses on the history, most viable science theories and impact on replacing greenhouse gases, but any other thoughts and resources would be appreciated.

Gregory Daigle

Here is the session description as it currently stands:

LENR – A Primer

LENR is an acronym for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, but is also known as LANR (Lattice Assisted …), CANR (Chemically Assisted …) and describes a category of carbon-free generators of heat energy that have been researched for 30 years. This year companies have said they will introduce products into the marketplace that could dramatically reduce our reliance upon greenhouse gases. So shouldn’t we learn more about it?

One potential manufacturer states, “Think of it as an energy amplifier, that turns one unit of energy into many units without any toxic waste or dangerous radioactivity.”

Controversial? You betcha! Despite over 1,000 peer reviewed papers from research universities showing generation of heat, financial backing by the Gates Foundation and Google Alphabet and confirmation of heat production by research heavyweights like SRI International LENR is pulled down by its checkered past when it was called “cold fusion”.

This will be a primer on the topic, including some of the science, how the field has progressed and how it might be poised to be the biggest provider of heat energy in industry, the home and even in vehicles.

The session will provide links to researchers, organizations, commercial ventures and patents filed by those trying to be first to market with a device that can generate thousands of kilowatts of heat from a core the size of a cigarette that can run for six months on a single charge using the same materials you find in today’s laptop batteries.

With firms like Toyota, Nissan, Boeing and Mitsubishi engaged in research, and patents filed as recently as February by Google, it’s worth finding out how this technology is positioned to fill the gap between renewables and traditional nuclear.

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Journal Article “”Tunneling Effect Enhanced by Pd Screening as Main LENR Mechanism: A Brief Theoretical Impression”

Thanks to Jonas Matuzas for providing this reference to a new article published in the Journal of Energy and Power Engineering:
Title: “Tunneling Effect Enhanced by Pd Screening as Main LENR Mechanism: A Brief Theoretical Impression”
Author: Frisone Fulvio
Department of Physics, University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania, Italy
Abstract:
In this paper the main features of tunneling travelling are illustrated between two deuterons
within a lattice. Considering the  screening  effect  due  to  lattice  electrons  we  compared  the  d-d  fusion  rate  evaluated  from  different  authors  assuming  different screening  efficiency  and  different  d-d  potentials.  Then,  we  proposed  an  effective  potential  which  describes  very  well  the  attractive
contribution due to plasmon exchange between two deuterons and by means of it wewill compute the d-d fusion rates for different energy values.
Reference: Journal of Energy and Power Engineering 13 (2019) 59-67

doi: 10.17265/1934-8975/2019.02.002
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Leonardo Has Had to Resole ‘Several Problems’ with the E-Cat SK

There have been some comments on the Journal of Nuclear Physics from Andrea Rossi about some problems with the E-Cat SK that he has been dealing with. As usual there are not many details. He wrote on April 13th that there have been “several problems, normal for initial activity, I can say we are satisfied how things are going on”.

I followed up with some questions:

Frank Acland
April 14, 2019 at 2:12 PM
Dear Andrea,

You have mentioned that you have experienced some problems with the first SK reactor. What kinds of problems are you referring to:

a) E-Cat reactor malfunctioning
b) Control system malfunctioning
c) Heat exchanger malfunctioning
d) Remote control system malfunctioning

Also, have you solved the problems that have come up, or are you still in the process of solving them.

Andrea Rossi
April 14, 2019 at 5:15 PM
Frank Acland:
a) yes
b) no
c) yes
d) yes
All resolved ( so far )
Warm Regards,
A.R.

So it seems that there have been quite a few issues that have come up, maybe this will have required some redesigning or rebuilding. We don’t know how many working units that have been affected, I would guess at this stage there are not too many E-Cats that have been deployed to customers, but it will be very important for Leonardo Corporation that these issues are resolved if the E-Cat is going to be a successful product.

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Study: Energetic Discharge Plasma Kills Virus Samples

Thanks to Sandy R for the following comment.

Energetic discharge plasma successfully trialled in killing virus samples: “In those void spaces, you’re initiating sparks,” Clack said. “By passing through the packed bed, pathogens in the air stream are oxidized by unstable atoms called radicals. What’s left is a virus that has diminished ability to infect cells.”

possible EVO activity?!?

Title of the article is: “Cold plasma can kill 99.9% of airborne viruses”

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/04/190408161630.htm

From the article:

“Dangerous airborne viruses are rendered harmless on-the-fly when exposed to energetic, charged fragments of air molecules, University of Michigan researchers have shown.
They hope to one day harness this capability to replace a century-old device: the surgical mask.”

Who’s Who in LENR-Cold Fusion (Alan Smith)

Thanks to Alan Smith for sharing the following document which is intended to be a directory of companies, organizations and individuals who are currently working in the field of LENR/Cold Fusion.

It is certainly a very comprehensive and useful list, and I think one that will grow over time. If there are any corrections or additions I am sure Alan would like to hear about them. He is a moderator on the LENR-Forum.com site, and can be contacted there.

https://e-catworld.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Whos-Who-in-LENR-Cold-Fusion.pdf

Who's Who in LENR-Cold Fusion
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First-Ever Photo of Black Hole Published

Here’s a science news story that might be of interest to readers here: scientists at Harvard University have for the first time, photographed a black hole with the Event Horizon Telescope. Here’s a video from Harvard which shows the Black Hole, and included comments and explanation from members of the research team.

Rossi: Domestic E-Cats in ‘Several Years at the Most”

The question about who Andrea Rossi and Leonardo Corporation is partnering with is still a curious one. Rossi has stated recently that he believes the introduction of a domestic E-Cat (an E-Cat for home use) is not as far away as he may have once thought:

Frank Acland
April 7, 2019 at 1:01 PM
Dear Andrea,
Are you still convinced that it will be many years after industrial E-Cats are deployed, that you will be able to produce domestic E-Cats?

Andrea Rossi
April 7, 2019 at 3:07 PM
Frank Acland:
No, I’d not say many years, I’d say several years at the most.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

I wondered whether the change in outlook could be due to the new ‘global’ partner that he has referred to, so I asked some more questions:

Frank Acland
April 8, 2019 at 9:45 AM
Dear Andrea,
You say you are working with a global partner. May I ask:
a) Does your global partner have experience bringing industrial and domestic products to market?
a) Will your global partner be able to help you with the authorizations and safety certifications for E-Cats?
b) Do you think the partner will be able to help with faster approval for domestic E-Cats?

Andrea Rossi
April 8, 2019 at 10:56 AM
Frank Acland:
a) yes
b) yes
Warm Regards,
A.R.

(As you can see above, I mistakenly labeled two questions a) — I got a clarification that his answer “yes” above referred to both my questions)

We don’t know who this partner is, but if they are experienced in bringing both industrial and domestic products to market, and have experience with authorizations and safety certifications, one would think they would have to have to be quite well established and influential.

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