‘Reliablity’ an Issue E-Cat Team is Dealing With

Here’s a little indication about what kinds of issues Andrea Rossi and his team are working on with the

David Haws
February 3, 2020 at 8:15 PM
Dear Dr. Andrea,

I have followed your progress for many years from afar. But recently my excitement is overwhelming. Regarding your current efforts with the E-CAT SKL are the issues you and your team are working related to:

A) Stabilizing the plasma to produce consistent electricity?
B) Resolving issues with the control system to consistently produce electricity? Or,
C) Working issues more related to commercialization such as ensuring a long run time?

Rossi’ reply:

Andrea Rossi
February 4, 2020 at 3:59 AM
David Haws:
D: reliability in long time
Warm Regards,

I think what Rossi is meaning here is that they are working on reliability over the long term. It is one thing to have the SKL to run for a short period of time, but for commercial products you would need to have them working reliably. There was a question on the Journal of Nuclear Physics this week asking about having the grid as a backup for the SKL:

Chuck Davis
January 31, 2020 at 1:07 PM
Dear Andrea,
When it will be possible to use the Ecat as a main energy source do you think it will be opportune to maintain the grid as a backup ?

Andrea Rossi
January 31, 2020 at 2:38 PM
Chuck Davis:
Warm Regards,

We have heard from Rossi that the heat-only E-Cat SK, has had reliability problems during its operations for about a year now, and maybe there is something inherent in this technology that is causing problems, so having a backup source of energy maybe a requirement until problems are resolved. We are in very early days for this previously unknown energy source an it is probably not unsurprising that there are problems to deal with.

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‘Nighttime Photovoltaic Cell’ Proposed to Generate Electricity at Night

Thanks to an ECW reader for sending a link to a paper published in the journal ACS Photonics titled “Nighttime Photovoltaic Cells: Electrical Power Generation by Optically Coupling with Deep Space”

The authors are Tristan Deppe and Jeremy N. Munday

Link is here: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsphotonics.9b00679


Photovoltaics possess significant potential due to the abundance of solar power incident on earth; however, they can only generate electricity during daylight hours. In order to produce electrical power after the sun has set, we consider an alternative photovoltaic concept that uses the earth as a heat source and the night sky as a heat sink, resulting in a “nighttime photovoltaic cell” that employs thermoradiative photovoltaics and concepts from the advancing field of radiative cooling. In this Perspective, we discuss the principles of thermoradiative photovoltaics, the theoretical limits of applying this concept to coupling with deep space, the potential of advanced radiative cooling techniques to enhance their performance, and a discussion of the practical limits, scalability, and integrability of this nighttime photovoltaic concep

An Open Secret – The Scalable, Ubiquitous EVO at the Core of SAFIRE, the E-Cat SKL, the Suncell, Brown’s Gas, and Virtually Every Exotic Energy Technology (Director)

The following post has been submitted by ECW reader ‘Director’

An Open Secret – The Scalable, Ubiquitous EVO at the Core of SAFIRE, the E-Cat SKL, the Suncell, Brown’s Gas, and Virtually Every Exotic Energy Technology.

By Director

God, the creator of the universe, established the laws of the universe that govern not only the interaction of planets and stars but the processes that occur within atoms and the structure of the vacuum itself. With these rules or the “code” of reality entered, nature commenced. Those who are careful observers will not that many of the most important breakthroughs in a broad array of fields come from mimicking natural processes – whether biological or physical. Many life saving drugs are chemically altered forms of molecules found in plants, for example. Yet in in mankind’s attempt to harness the power of the atom via nuclear fusion, all sorts of artificially imposed schemes have been attempted to produce and maintain the conditions scientists believe are essential. But the simplest route to an energy panacea has been largely ignored except by a minority of exceptional open minded theoreticians and experimentalists – learning to create man made, artificial ball lighting. Yet true breakthroughs are taking place as we speak, due to a number of different technologies being developed that utilize macro-scale variants of Kenneth R. Shoulders’ EVOs (Exotic Vacuum Objects) as their driving mechanism. Although these self-organizing plasma structures which form during out of equilibrium conditions (such as the negative resistance regime of a plasma discharge) can induce a wide array of phenomena – altering hydrogen into different forms, inducing exothermic nuclear reactions, and extracting energy from the zero point energy field – they are all the same phenomena despite being utilized in different devices. Once this is recognized, progress towards a future with infinite possibilities can be accelerated.

Kenneth R. Shoulders, the father of vacuum micro-electronics, started a collaboration with Dr. Harold Puthoff (currently a member of To The Stars Academy of Arts and Sciences and an adviser along with his former Chief Scientist Eric Davis to the SAFIRE Project) and Bill Church to investigate the Exotic Vacuum Object (EVO) phenomena around 1980. Ken Shoulders immediately discovered that when he pulsed a small, sharpened cathode with electricity that out of the plasma “soup” of ions, electrons, and vaporized metal nano-particles, a self organizing plasma structure would form. He discovered that they possessed a number of anomalous properties during the period of obsessive compulsive testing that followed.

Seemingly highly negatively charged (with the opposite being true in some rare occasions), the electrons on their surface seemed to stay in extreme close proximity at high density despite their mutual electrostatic repulsion. Dr. Puthoff even wrote paper theorizing that the Casimir force that would show up when the electrons were in very close proximity to each other would provide a force keeping them together that would be stronger than the electrostatic repulsion pushing them apart. Additional strange properties of EVOs (for a while at first just termed EVs) included the ability to be divided and recombined, to travel along grooves in dielectric surfaces, to carve trenches through guide plates, liquify material in a non-thermal manner, produce a wide array of electromagnetic emissions, nullify the majority of their mass/inertia so they could be accelerated to high speeds with very low input energies (a warp drive effect), and to induce transmutations and isotopic shifts on the targets they impacted.

Shoulders continued investigating the phenomena and learned how to control them very precisely – guiding his micron sized plasma balls through obstacle courses and making them perform all sorts of stunts. He was even able to learn how to make them switch from “white” states to “black” states and vice versa which represented their ability to be observed and interact with matter. Although his goal was to produce a viable energy producing technology, his extreme caution in scaling up the phenomena and his love of tinkering on the small scale may have gotten in the way. As far as we know, during the time period in which he was officially collaborating with Dr. Puthoff and Earthtech, a practical energy producing device seemingly was not produced utilizing his designs.

The way to utilize the EVO phenomena to make practical devices was hidden in plain site. The first factor that obscured the path forward was that most LENR or “cold fusion” researchers had never heard of Kenneth Shoulders (or didn’t know what to make of his research). Yet Kenneth Shoulders in direct communication and in his papers attempted to broadcast the fact that tiny scale EVOs were likely being formed via multiple pathways in the crystalline lattice of hydrogen or deuterium loaded metals such as nickel, palladium, platinum, titanium, etc. One such method was fracto-emission. When hydrogen moves through an embrittled material, the lattice can be manipulated or even damaged producing charge separation. The result can be nano-scale electric discharges which can produce self-organizing plasma structures.

A link between fracto-emission and LENR or cold fusion in bulk metal systems could be the fact that excess heat usually shows up either during the gas loading or de-loading process, induced either by changes in applied heat or pressure. Kenneth Shoulders even performed experiments on hydrogen/deuterium loaded materials by striking them with an EVO, resulting in a zone of damage that spread across the surface of the material. He described this as the “wildfire” effect. The idea was that a chain reaction of EVO production was happening which resulted in the visible alterations.
As time went on, LENR experimentalists such as Andrea Rossi attempted to enhance gas loading systems via a number of different methods. These include using powders instead of bulk materials to increase surface area, structuring the surface of nickel particles with spillover catalysts such as palladium to maximize the dissociation and absorption of hydrogen/deuterium, subjecting the environment of the reactor to electromagnetic radiation in the form of radio frequencies (potentially electrical discharges as well) to produce atomic hydrogen with higher kinetic energies, and adding elements such as lithium which could serve various purposes. All of these factors likely increased hydrogen absorption which enhanced the probability of EVO production within the lattice. However, although probably unrecognized to him at the time, the radio frequencies (either produced with a radio frequency generator or via the harmonics of the “dirty” AC he pumped into his heating resistor coils) were feeding the EVOs in a manner similar to what Kenneth Shoulders achieved.

Yet unless you are a brilliant and obsessive compulsive experimentalist like Andrea Rossi with a drive to perform countless experiments, bulk metal and powder based gas loading systems seem to be very tricky. This is likely due to the complexities of maximizing hydrogen absorption (which can require careful surface modification of your fuel in addition to long periods of degassing). In fact, it’s pretty obvious that Andrea Rossi had failures himself from time to time with these types of systems. What’s important to note is that he moved beyond powder based reactors. In the past few years, he has developed pure plasma based systems that utilize a set of electrodes (a cathode and an anode) and a gaseous interior environment. Except for whatever nano-particles are sputtered off the surface off his electrodes (which are thought to be composed of platinum coated, high manganese nickel that’s used for electrical contacts), the fuel is simply a combination of gases. Due to this, much of the frustration of powder based systems can be avoided.

So how do these pure plasma versions of the E-Cat work? At their core, they are utilizing the same phenomena as multiple other exotic energy devices in development today (including The SAFIRE Project’s reactor and Brilliant Light Power’s Suncell) along with SEVERAL others going back a hundred years. Basically, the E-Cat is utilizing the negative resistance regime of an electric discharge (this is a zone between the glow discharge and true arc discharge) in which the voltage and current relationship is flipped upside down. During the period that an electric discharge is in this zone, a plasma ball (also referred to as a fireball, ball of fire, man-made ball lightning, micro-ball lightning, complex space charge configuration, plasma globe, or macro-EVO) self organizes out of the chaos of the out of equilibrium plasma. One universal identifier that such an EVO has formed is the production of ion acoustic waves that can be seen on an oscilloscope. This structure is the prime mover of all these devices that produce anomalous excess energy, transmutations, isotopic shifts, and other anomalies. If the parameters of a plasma based E-Cat are tuned properly (achieving a resonance between the plasma ball and it’s environment which includes the circuit of the device), the plasma ball can move off the electrode, further self-organize, and become what’s called a “free floating fireball” in multiple papers. Once free floating and not touching any component of the reactor, it will no longer hold the potential to do things like damage electrodes or melt down the walls of the reactor. Nevertheless, it can produce massive excess energy in the forms of heat, light, and electricity. High energy photons are also generated which some speculate could be extracted from the vacuum.

By now, you’re probably wondering about the structure of an EVO (or pick your favorite descriptive term out of the dozen or so that’s available). Here’s what I consider to be what we know about the structure and a re-listing of some of their properties.

– They can exist in the form of a torus (a donut with a hole in the middle) or a spheroid or ball which is even more stable and can better contain the energy of the structure.

– They have at least one double layer meaning a membrane or surface of extremely dense electrons and an interior of positive ions. In many cases, there can be multiple “double layers” around each other like a Russian nesting doll.

– In many or most cases, they interact with matter as if they were negatively charged. So they can repulse each other electrostatically; yet, they can also combine and split.

– They consume (inhale) and excrete (exhale) matter and energy like a living organism. One of their favorite foods are electrons and their “waste” can be positive ions (ion acoustic oscillations).

– They can give off sudden jolts of electrical power that feed back into the power supply. Often, this is very destructive.

– According to experts who have studied this phenomenon, the electrons and positive ions within the double layers can exhibit unique properties that make them lose individuality and become more of a condensate with superconductive properties.

– Relating to the above, the electrons in the membrane of the double layer produce an interior that can act as a resonant chamber that can harvest RF and MW energy.

– They can induce nuclear reactions leading to transmutation of elements and isotopic shifts.

– They can be ideal longitudinal wave generators.

– Their internal structure and self organization can be enhanced if they are composed of multiple gases of different masses. This allows for the different elements to self-segregate into different sheathes. Having multiple sheathes of gases aids the stability of the self organizing structure.

– They seem to often produce a form of “strange radiation” that could be clusters of EVOs in a state somewhere between white which would be very interactive with matter and black which would almost unobservable. This could be related to the bright plasma and “dark mode plasma” produced by the SAFIRE Project device. This form of emissions should be studied due to the potential health hazards.

The above phenomena is likely not only involved in LENR/CF reactions within a metal lattice and in pure plasma reactors (E-Cat SKL, Suncell, SAFIRE, etc.) but also in the reaction between a Brown’s Gas flame and a range of different materials. For those who are not aware, Brown’s Gas is one of many names for the type of gas produced in a common duct electrolysis unit (in which all the gases produced are collected together). This gas seems to differ in properties from an ordinary mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. There is strong evidence that in addition to hydrogen and oxygen, there is another gas that George Wiseman calls “electrically expanded water” or EEW. Other researchers have given it other names as well. This gas seems to be a form of water that has incorporated extra electrons into the molecule resulting in the bond angles shifting. The result is a form of water in a gaseous phase that is due to electricity and NOT thermal energy – this is NOT steam. When the EEW component of Brown’s Gas is combusted, electrons are released into the flame. This makes the flame of a Brown’s Gas torch act as a cathode. What the SAFIRE Project has taught us, among other things, is that double layers of plasma will self organize around an object at a different electrical potential than its surroundings. So when the cathode (the flame) is made to contact a material, the material will serve as an anode at a different electrical potential. The transmutations, isotopic shifts, nuclear waste remediation, brilliant light, anomalous heating, and rapid oxidation-like reactions (which can break apart matter) produced by such a flame in contact with a material is likely due to the formation of a macro-EVO. Interestingly, some materials react more powerfully to Brown’s Gas than others; for example, Tungsten and ceramics. The theory of George Wiseman and others in the past has been that if the material has a high electrical resistance, the current from the Brown’s Gas flame would heat it up rapidly like an ordinary electrical resistor. They also proposed that materials with a high electrical conductivity like aluminum or copper (which react less strongly to Brown’s Gas) don’t heat up as fast because the resistance is less. I propose an alternative.

My opinion is that one of the reasons materials with different electrical conductivity respond more or less with Brown’s Gas is that some of them are less able to maintain a relative different electrical potential to the flame (the cathode). When the flame hits a material like copper with a high electrical conductivity, the material becomes more negatively charged at a rate far faster than let’s say Tungsten or a ceramic. This means that a Brown’s Gas flame hitting Tungsten would produce a more organized and more intense macro-EVO on the surface. Conversely, a flame hitting copper or aluminum would produce a fear weaker macro-EVO. I’d also like to predict that if a copper, aluminum, or other highly conductive metal was positively biased (so that it would remain at a different electrical potential than the flame) it would react in a manner more similar to Tungsten. I would predict that it would produce far higher temperatures and much more light. I’d like to say that this is just a personal opinion and has not been established by experimentation unlike the other information I’ve provided in this essay.

Moving back to the range of devices currently being developed that utilize a macro-EVO or self organizing plasma with double layers, I’d like to say that the inventors of these need to look back at the history of a long serious of inventions going back a hundred years or more that utilized the same phenomena. Although I won’t go into detail into each technology, here is a list of names and devices that I believe utilized some variety of EVO at some scale small or large: Alexander Chernetsky’s Self Generating Discharge Tube, Paulo and Alexandria Correa’s Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge Device, Mizuno’s Electrolytic Plasma Reactors, Paul Brown’s Resonant Nuclear Battery, Joseph Papp’s Noble Gas Engine, Edwin V. Gray’s motors/generators, Thomas Henry Moray’s discharge tubes, Nikola Tesla’s spark gaps, and most LENR devices electrolytic, gas loading, and plasma based.

The open secret is now OUT. We have a common phenomena that links a broad array of technologies ranging from modern to very old. What’s absolutely wonderful is that due to the work of The SAFIRE Project, Andrea Rossi’s Leonardo Corporation, and Brilliant Light Power, we know not only that Kenneth Shoulders EVO phenomena CAN be scaled up but that it’s straightforward and simple. Instead of mucking around processing bulk metal (rod, wire, or powder) to optimize hydrogen absorption, we can build a simple discharge tube, put in a combination of gases, connect a well designed control system, start the discharge, produce a steady state macro-scale EVO, and then tune it into resonance to produce massive excess energy production. Moreover, if we adjust the parameters enough, we can achieve a free floating fireball that doesn’t touch any of the components of the reactor. This can help extend the lifetime of the device.

Montgomery Childs in his recent interviews and presentations have made it clear that a number of different fuel combinations in their system work. This is true of both the gases they put into their reactor and the composition of their anodes. We know from their patents and careful examination of their videos that they are extensively utilizing hydrogen, nitrogen (which increases heat output with less input power), argon, deuterium, and only a few other gases which are all visible on their control panel. We also have deduced at least three of the anode metals they have utilized which they won’t speak about openly: tungsten, iron, and nickel. Also, we know they have used iron and nickel in combination since their patent speaks about a steel alloy with at least 20% nickel. I suspect that this means they are using an Invar 36 alloy in some cases that would prevent thermal expansion. This combination of Fe and Ni would also match their slide in which they discussed salting an FeNi alloy with lithium. Amazingly, with these combinations they were able, at least during short term periods, to produce megawatts of thermal output (producing transmutations at the same time) for only 1800 watts of input power. What we’ve also learned is that their system, although a technical marvel, is fundamentally simple. They utilize a hollow anode with a floating potential and two cathodes with a much larger surface area. The relative size of the cathodes to the anode enhance the ionization around the anode and allow for the double layers to form at relatively reasonable amperages. In one example in their patent application, the double layers around their anode grew in size as amperage increased above .2 amps and then collapsed close to the surface of the anode at 8 or 10 amps (one version of their patent application mentions eight amps and the other mentions ten amps). Importantly, it was when the double layers collapsed that they melted down their Tungsten anode and produced amazing excess heat. Monty Childs has confirmed that typically they restrict their current and when they de-restrict it is when they see the thermal response and transmutations. Another bit of information extracted from their video presentation is that their system operates at a maximum of only 1500 volts and 40 amps. However, when they melted their Tungsten anode, they were only at 7% of their maximum power.

I’d also like to mention that in their patent application it mentions a magnetic coil that can be energized to push or pull the plasma in a desired direction. If they begin testing to determine the excess heat production from a “free floating fireball” I think this could be important in keeping the plasma off the electrodes. Also, it discusses the possibility of utilizing RF and MW frequencies to enhance the plasma. This would absolutely work because it has been used in the past by inventors such as Chukanov who created ball lightning using microwaves.

All of this has apparently started to interest certain individuals at CERN, because Montgomery Childs mentioned they are interested in perhaps building their own SAFIRE reactor! This is very interesting and something I would support. However, I really hope that a party somewhere will build a small scale device that could be built at a low cost, test it repeatedly to make sure it produces high levels of output, and post the open source plans. I believe that such a device would be replicated thousands of times over. It would spread virally across the globe and in a matter of months every nation in the world would be experimenting with such systems. It would be the way to “fast track” the acceptance of this phenomena. Conversely, secrecy is the way to make sure progress remains slow and that the world remains ignorant as to the reality of this technology. Once the reality of the SAFIRE and similar devices such as the Suncell and the E-Cat SKL is admitted to by scientists on major news networks, then companies should start focusing on IP. Right now, getting this phenomena out to the world is what matters. Anyone who puts the desire for money or fame or domination of an industry before exposing the reality of this technology is doing a disservice to us all.

Finally, as I’ve stated before, I believe variations of this phenomena are being used by the black world in waived, carved out Special Access Programs managed by private legacy aerospace corporations like Lockheed Martin. Craft like the Fluxliner ARV and TR3B likely already utilize this phenomena which allow for the altering of apparent mass, inertia, and gravity which are all manifestations of the scalar potential. The SAPs have had this technology for a very long time since a series of crash recoveries of ET space craft took place starting in the 40’s. However, the last thing they want to do is let this technology out because it would change every aspect of our civilization. Not only would it provide an unlimited source of energy and FTL transportation, it would open up our understanding of physical reality itself.

So what are you going to do with this secret?

Addendum #1

The SAFIRE Project reactor, like the Suncell and most likely the E-Cat SKL can produce huge COPs. Here is a quote from Montgomery Childs transcribed from one of his interviews. If his numbers were accurate, during the surge – not a spike – of output power, the COP was 5,555!

Monty: We were really quite taken back by those results because you have to go back and I can get into some of those things. We didn’t expect the plasma to self organize. We didn’t expect that with 1800 watts DC power going in that when those double layers would explode that it had a surge, not a spike, but a surge of over 10,000,000 watts. We couldn’t measure it. Our instruments… we have pretty good instruments. It went right off the scale. We had a thumb nail drive in a computer twenty feet away that was flashing. The computer was not plugged in. So the EM field was flashing off this little ball that was made out of some special material and, um, not that elaborate material but it was something that the EU had agreed to or Wal Thornhill agreed that we think this material or they think this material would be useful to use.

From a little further in the video…

Monty: But we’ve never seen anything like this. And there’s no precedent in plasma physics right now that can explain what is going on there.

Host: So this is in terms of amount of energy you put in vs. the amount of energy that you are seeing produced inside of the machine?

Monty: Yes, specifically it has to do with the rise in temperature over time. As I mentioned, I wanted to communicate to the audience that if you are going to do.. I didn’t get into this… but if you want to do a total energy evaluation you have to have calormetric or calorimetry to do this properly. But what we do know is that if you have evidence of a very high rate of rise in temperature over time that goes directly to the amount of energy that is causing that. That’s what my point was about… You know it takes a certain amount of time to heat it with this much energy but if you have a bazillion watts going into something it will rise very, very quickly. And I don’t know if I was effectively communicating that or not. That is what we saw happen. So for three years we ran the experiment and it always worked within the parameter set we had designed it to until we started to see the transmutation. So the double layers, the formation of the double layers, the transmutation, the segregation, and the sequestering of elements that we’ve talked about that. And the sudden rise of thermal temperature all happening concurrently…

Host: So they are all linked? Something is happening that is causing all of these things and releasing this energy?

Monty: Yes.

Addendum #2

If you listen carefully to all of Monty’s videos and read his patents, the conditions for the excess power production that happens simutaneously with the transmutations are clear. Basically, you keep the anode at a floating voltage (applying a certain amount of voltage from the cathodes) when providing a certain amount of voltage from the cathodes. The exact voltage required from the cathodes is not available, but we know that the maximum their system can produce is 1500 volts from one of the displays in their 2019 presentation. As you increase the current from .2 to 8 or 10 amps (one version of their patent gives one number and another version gives a different number) the tufts start to form, then the double layers, and then eventually the double layers collapse close to the anode and it starts to glow bright orange. At this point the plasma is very dense near the anode and there’s a huge voltage drop close to the anode over a very short distance of sometimes a thousand volts. This is when the excess heat and transmutations show up in addition to other anomalies.

Of course along with the above conditions, you need a proper fuel mixture. Interestingly, Monty Childs claims all the anode materials they have tested work to some degree although some individual elements and alloys produce more heat than others. A few of the elements we know they are using in their anodes are iron, nickel, and tungsten. However, I suspect they have likely tested many different combinations and other elements as well. I especially suspect that chromium and platinum were also tested either individually or as parts of alloys.

When it comes to gaseous elements, we know for a fact, due to the panel that has all the valves on it, that they can use the following gases: hydrogen, deuterium, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon. We also know from a piece of paper hanging on a table in Monty’s garage in the SAFIRE Project video that a percentage of nitrogen increases the excess heat while reducing the input power. From the notes in people’s hands, we can see that they were experimenting with different percentages of nitrogen and hydrogen.

Addendum #3

Montgomery Childs mentioned in his interview that if people have ideas or theories they should make predictions that are testable. I’ll make one here about a catalytic component he could add to the SAFIRE Project reactor (if of course he could do so in a safe manner and avoid contaminating his laboratory). I predict that mercury in general and mercury isotope 199 when utilized along with hydrogen and/or deuterium – both should be tested – would dramatically enhance the self organizational potential of the plasma improving the internal structure. My reasons are as follows:

a) It’s a heavy element – far more massive than argon – that should ionize and produce a sheathe of positive ions that would be very stabilizing to the structure of the double layers or macro-EVO wrapped around the anode. Data going back many decades tells us that adding a heavier element to these self organizing plasma structures helps them form and improves their stability.

b) Kenneth Shoulders seemed to have VERY good success with mercury when he used it on the tips of his cathodes to wet them to prevent them from being destroyed.

c) Mecury when doubly ionized becomes a pseudo-noble gas and very unreactive. I suspect this property will actually help the formation of the double layers.

d) If the specific isotope Mecury 199 is used, due to the fact it does not have a a quadrapolar moment, it should help assist the spin polarization of the positive ions in the double layer. Because it has a one half integer spin the mecury ions should not interfere with each other and reduce the spin relaxation time.

e) Related to the above, since Mercury 199 is a fermion with one half interger spin, its ions may form a fermionic condensate in the sheathes.


f) The Fluxliner ARV (Alien Reproduction Vehicle) and TR3B are alleged to both utilize mercury plasma in their central cores that self organizes and manipulates the vacuum to produce changes in apparent mass, inertia, and gravity.

g) For the record, although I would love to see mercury 199 in the atmosphere of the SAFIRE reactor tested with several different anode combinations, my favorite would be a Tungsten Nickel Iron alloy such as ATM1700.


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Patents Filed by Montgomery Childs of the SAFIRE Projects Published

Thanks to an ECW reader for sending the following links and comments about patents filed at the US Patent Office by Montgomery Childs (of the SAFIRE project)

Electrode Assembly for Plasma Generation

Ion Generator Apparatus

Manipulator for Movement of Articles in a Controlled Environment Chamber

They reveal a few tidbits, such as a steel anode with at least 20% nickel content.
Also, the reactor is already built with additional features they have not discussed publicly. For example, magnetic cones that could be used to move the plasma around.
Also, it talks about the potential application of RF or microwaves to augment the plasma
Monty Childs talked about that during an interview.
This is the same phenomena but in a different arrangement than the E-Cat. The macro-EVO in this case is wrapped around the anode vs. free floating like like the in video of the E-Cat SK



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Nuclear Waste Could be Recycled for Diamond Battery Power (University of Bristol Press Release)

The following is a press release issued by the University of Bristol (UK): 20 January 2020


A team of physicists and chemists from the University of Bristol hope to recycle radioactive material directly from a former nuclear power plant in Gloucestershire to generate ultra-long-lasting power sources.

Work has begun at Berkeley Power Station in to remove radioactive waste products from the site as part of its decommissioning programme.

By extracting Carbon-14 isotopes from the irradiated graphite, the time and cost of the clean-up operation would be significantly reduced.

Berkeley was decommissioned in 1989 and it has only just become safe to start removing radioactive waste products from the plant.

These are currently stored in concrete vaults eight metres underground and require specialist equipment to retrieve and process securely.

The second nuclear station on the bank of the River Severn is Oldbury, which stopped producing electricity in 2012. This site completed defueling in 2016 and is now in the early decommissioning phase.

These two sites, as well as the reactors at Hinkley Point in Somerset and other decommissioned sites across the UK, hold vast amounts of irradiated graphite that hold the Carbon-14 isotope that could be recycled to generate power.

University of Bristol researchers have grown a man-made diamond that, when placed in a radioactive field, is able to generate a small electrical current. By using Carbon-14 which has a half-life of 5730 years, the batteries could potentially provide power on a near-infinite basis.

This work is part of the ASPIRE project: Advanced Self-Powered sensor units in Intense Radiation Environments. The lead researcher is Professor Tom Scott from the School of Physics and Director of the South West Nuclear Hub.

He said: “Over the past few years we have been developing ultra-low powered sensors that harvest energy from radioactive decay. This project is at quite an advanced stage now and we have tested the batteries in sensors in places as extreme as the top of a volcano!”

As well as using the batteries in environments where conventional power sources cannot easily be replaced, there are potential applications for medical purposes such as for hearing aids or pacemakers. It could even be possible to power spacecraft or satellites for much further travel than is currently possible.

Professor Scott added: “The ultimate aim is to have a factory based at one of the former power stations in the South West that takes Carbon-14 isotopes directly from the graphite blocks for use in diamond batteries.

“This would significantly reduce the radioactivity of the remaining material, making it easier and safer to manage.

“With the majority of the UK’s nuclear power plants set to go offline in the next 10-15 years this presents a huge opportunity to recycle a large amount of material to generate power for so many great uses.”

This technology is a strong example of the research and innovation being developed in the South West region, the home to the only nuclear new build project in the UK.

Industrial Partner and Rossi Make Joint Decisions About E-Cat Commercialization

Gerard McEk has asked some interesting questions about the relationship between Andrea Rossi and his claimed industrial partner with whom he says he is collaborating on the development and commercialization of the E-Cat SKL

Here are the questions and Rossi’s responses:

Gerard McEk
January 29, 2020 at 3:26 PM
Dear Andrea,
Just a question about how you have organized the introduction of the E-Cat SK and the SK Leonardo on the market:
1. You are the only one that decides what to put on the market and when, you industrial partner has no vote.
2. You and your industrial partner have equal voting in this.
3. Your industrial partner decides what and when the E-Cats are put on the market.
Thanks, kind regards, Gerard

Andrea Rossi
January 30, 2020 at 5:58 AM
Gerard McEk:
1 no
2 yes
3 The Ecat will decide all this
Warm Regards,

In response to some other questions I have asked recently about the current status of E-Cat SKL development, Rossi told me that ‘about 20 persons’ are involved in current experiments with the E-Cat. He stated these persons are not all in a single location, and all are not working full time. He says that he has all the financial and equipment resources they need, and that the progress of the team is ‘excellent’.

It would seem that Rossi’s partner is large enough to provide the expertise and financial resources to cover the needs of the E-Cat project, and in return they have some say over what goes on with the E-Cat. I think that if there really is an strong established industrial partner it should make the engineering and commercialization much easier than if Leonardo Corporation were operating alone. Of course there is no confirmation of the information provided here by Rossi, so we are in the same situation as always until a presentation takes place.

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E-Cat Presentation Could be Delayed beyond February, Rossi’s Team ‘Still Resolving Problems’

I’m sure that many readers here are wondering what the status is of the presentation that Andrea Rossi has been talking about for a few months now. Recently he has said that he was optimistic that it would be held in February, but now it doesn’t sound like he is so sure. Here’s a Q&A from the Journal of Nuclear Physics yesterday:

Gerard McEk
January 26, 2020 at 10:35 AM
Dear Andrea,
January is coming to an end soon. Are you stil optimistic that the presentation in February will go on?
All the success with the ECat SKL testing!
Kind regards, Gerard

Andrea Rossi
January 26, 2020 at 1:51 PM
Gerard McEk:
We are working on it and still resolving problems. The time runs too fast, but I am still optimistic. If it will not be February, it should be March, but we are close.
Warm Regards,

What kinds of problems are they dealing with? Here is a Q&A between Rossi and Steven Karels on the JONP:

Steven N. Karels
January 23, 2020 at 6:06 AM
Dear Andrea Rossi,

You posted “we always have problems coming up.”

Please clarify. Does this mean:
1. New problems are arising and must each be solved?
2. The SKL has problems getting started?
3. The SKL has reliability problems?

Andrea Rossi
January 23, 2020 at 9:06 AM
Steven N. Karels:
1 yes
2 yes
3 yes
We are working hard as usual and I still am optimist . Really optmist.
Warm regards

They are obviously not going to be holding a public product presentation until they are sure it works properly. Rossi is always optimistic, but it sounds like there are some issues that they are having difficulty resolving, and maybe expecting resolution by next month is not realistic.

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Randy Booker Responds to Reader Questions about Brilliant Light Power Testing

Thanks to ECW reader Neil Ferguson for posting the following:


Because the report raised several questions in my mind, I e-mailed Professor Booker, asking him if he would answer any of them. He kindly responded, answering a couple that he was allowed to, given IP considerations. My e-mail follows. His response is at the end. [Also posted to reddit/BrilliantLightPower]

——- e-mail to Professor Booker, 1/25/20 ————
Professor Booker,

I along with numerous other observers of BLP activities are naturally very excited by tests whose results you have documented in “Report on the Power Output of Liquid Gallium Suncells at Brilliant Light Power”. (I attach a copy from the BLP website.) There are a couple of points I would ask you to clarify, subject, of course, to any contractual agreements with BLP. With your permission I will convey any responses you are kind enough to give me to groups such as [list of interest groups].

1. The report includes two abstracts that decisively assert remarkable performance of the BLP SunCell. “Brilliant Light Power has discovered a novel power source, the liquid gallium SunCell®, which produces a large excess of heat. These input power and output power numbers have been validated by me and are correct.” Firstly, because of the extraordinary test results, I wish to confirm that the abstract paragraphs in the report appear as written by you.

2. There is very limited information about the composition and quantity of gas fed to the reactor during the tests. “Fuel for the reaction was provided in the form of hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) gas, which were supplied from tanks into an oxyhydrogen torch for optimal mixing. The resultant mixture was then piped into an external heated tube (~90 °C) containing granular platinum (Pt) catalyst supported on alumina to allow for spontaneous reaction into ~1% water vapor in atomic hydrogen that was flowed into the cell.” Can you tell us about what methods were used to measure the mass quantity of gas fed to the reactor and to analyze its composition?

3. Do you happen to have particular theoretical knowledge of the reaction of H2 and O2 involving the platinum catalyst? If so, could you tell us what can be expected to occur in such a reaction?

4. With respect to the input gas 1% water vapor, does that mean the gas was 1% water vapor and 99% hydrogen? Or would that be 99% hydrogen and/or gasses other than water vapor? For example, in previous information released by BLP, the bulk of gas in the reactors is inert (argon, I think.) Unless it touches on proprietary information, can you give us more details about the reactor’s gas fuel mixture?

5. BLP has announced successfully running their reaction for long durations, even extending for hours. The tests you report are short duration, under 5 seconds. The methodology for calorimetry of such relatively short reactions strikes me as rather delicate. Considering the extraordinary performance documented by your report, would you say that it is highly desirable to perform and publish well-calibrated and observed tests of much longer reactions?

I thank you for any feedback you are free to give us on any of the points above.
Neil Ferguson

—– response of Prof. Booker – 1/25/20 —-

Dear Neil,
I can vouch that this report is indeed written by me. The two Executive Summary “abstracts” were also written by me.
The gas flows were measured by gas flow meters. The reaction that takes place is a hydrino reaction, where hydrogen in the presence of HOH and Platinum (which are catalysts for the hydrino reaction) forms a hydrino state of smaller radius than Hydrogen with the release of large amounts of energy. The answers to your other questions involve proprietary information.
Dr. Randy Booker
Professor and Chair
Department of Physics & Astronomy
UNC Asheville
Asheville, NC

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Rossi Book Recommendation: “Maxwell-Dirac Theory and Occam’s Razor: Unified Field, Elementary Particles, and Nuclear Interactions” (Axil Axil)

Thanks to Axil Axil for the following post regarding a book recommendation by Andrea Rossi.

Andrea Rossi
January 23, 2020 at 3:24 PM
Keith T:
Thank you for your insight.
I also suggest you the book
“Maxwell-Dirac Theory and Occam’s Razor:Unified Field, Elementary Particles, and Nuclear Interactions” ( Amazon, 2019 )
by Giorgio Vassallo, Andras Kovacs, Antonino Oscar Di Tommaso, Francesco celani, Dawei Wang
About your question, I think it is possible.
Warm Regards,

Maxwell-Dirac Theory and Occam’s Razor: Unified Field, Elementary Particles, and Nuclear Interactions

We introduce and use the space-time Clifford algebra, showing that only one fundamental physical entity is sufficient to describe the origin of electromagnetic fields, charges and currents: the electromagnetic four-potential. This simplified electromagnetic model turns out to be an improved understanding of electromagnetism. The obtained electromagnetic Lagrangian is the simplest possible relativistic Lagrangian formulation. Quantum mechanical relations follow naturally from this model, and we derive the electromagnetic formulation of the Dirac equation. The spinor field is shown to correspond to electromagnetic energy-momentum, and the complex-valued probability density is shown to correspond to electromagnetic Lagrangian density. This initial part of the book completes the theory initiated by Maxwell and Dirac.

The structure and dynamics of the electron are described next, showing how its mass originates from the electromagnetic field energy and showing how mass varies relativistically. Using this model, we derive the charge quantization mechanism. This part fulfills Einstein’s wish for understanding the electron before attempting to understand more complex particles. Through the study of electron dynamics, a more elaborate understanding of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is developed, which is indispensable for understanding nuclear interactions.

The book concludes by showing how the same model can be applied to describe nuclear forces and nucleons, and a very large set of “anomalous” or unexplained experimental data suddenly make sense.

Here, Rossi shows an interest in the structure of the electron by understanding the breakup of the electron into its more fundamental components.

An Amazon review as follows:

This is a difficult review to write. This is a very important book that will at some point be recognized for what it tries to do. It is a revolutionary and important scientific achievement. I would give it five stars for the science. However, I would give it one star for the personal character of the authors. First the book. Fixing the mess that is the standard model of quantum mechanics is one of the most important science projects of the 21st century. While touted as the most successful theory ever, the standard model has become a hodge podge of random assumptions and fudge factors leading to absurd conclusions about the nature of the universe. This book makes a very important contribution, beginning by reformulating the electron as an extended particle. The authors go on to state “the electron, and perhaps all other elementary charged particles, can be viewed as a charge distribution that rotates at the speed of light along a circumference whose length is equal to its Compton wavelength.” Modeling the elementary particles in this manner greatly simplifies quantum physics with so many insights just falling naturally and simply out of the math. The authors redefine the Heisenberg uncertainty principle while providing a straight forward explanation of electron tunneling. They further unify physics showing the strong and weak forces relationship to the electro-magnetic force.

Now the problem. The basic ideas in this book have already been deeply explored by Randell Mills in his three volume work “The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics”. The authors are well aware of this work since they reference J Naudts paper “On the hydrino state of the relativistic hydrogen atom”, which is all about Mills’ theories. But the authors never mention Mills directly. Clearly a deliberate snub. There are many similarities and many differences in the two works. The authors of this book, like Mills, model the electron as an extended massless charge that rotates at the speed of light. Mills calls this the orbitsphere. In Mills’ model the orbitsphere is a fairly complex pattern of currents that give rise to spin and other quantum features. In the present work it is an overall helical motion of the electron itself that is fundamental. The authors of the present work spend a lot of ink discussing Low Energy Nuclear Fusion and the role of collapsed hydrogen. Mills of course was one of the first to fully formulate the concept of collapsed hydrogen with an electron orbit below the Bohr state. He even coined the term “hydrino” to refer to this state. Mills states that LENR is possible but only at very small rates. The real source of excess energy is not LENR but the collapsing of the orbital itself. He explains in great detail why certain elements (eg. Lithium) and some compounds act as catalysts for this reaction. Not addressing and contrasting Mills’ model, which I believe to be actually simpler and more robust in explanatory power, the authors are as corrupted as the gate keepers of the standard model who they call to task for hampering advancements in nuclear physics.

I commend the authors for providing an outstanding work that seeks to correct the errors of nuclear physics and directly challenges the status quo. I condemn them for being as intellectually dishonest and frankly cowardly for engaging in the same censorship as the majority of the entrenched physics community.
The disagreement between this book and Mill theory is that Mills rejects quantum mechanics which forms the basis premise of this book.

What neither Mills nor Rossi has not yet recognized is the connection between the spinor and the Higgs field and how that connecting results in the LENR reaction.

Also see this post on hid book


Randy Booker Validation Report of Brilliant Light Power SunCell Published: Generation of Kilowatts of Excess Heat “Real and Reproducable”

Brilliant Light Power has just posted the validation report titled ‘Report on the Power Output of Liquid Gallium Suncells at Brilliant Light Power’ by Randy Booker, Ph.D. of the Department of Physics of the University of North Carolina at Asheville, published January 11, 2020


There are detailed descriptions, images and data in the paper; here’s some data from the paper showing results from water bath calorimetry, plus the executive summary:

Executive Summary: Brilliant Light Power has discovered a novel power source, the liquid gallium SunCell®, which produces a large excess of heat. These input power and output power numbers have been validated by me and are correct. I have been given access to the data files taken during the experiments for this validation. Also, as for the gallium, there is no chemical reaction at all responsible for this excess power. Testing shows that there’s 100% gallium before and there’s 100% gallium after in the cell. All the observed energy in these cases must come from the HOH hydrino plasma reaction occurring in the reaction cell. The power gain of the hydrino reaction determined using water bath calorimetry reported herein was 4.24 times at an excess power level of 296 kW. I am led to the conclusion that the generation of the large net excess power in the liquid gallium SunCell® experiment is real and reproducible.

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