Commercial LENR in 2018?

It’s the last day of 2017 and a natural time to reflect back on the old year and look forward to the new. In terms of progress in the LENR field I have always thought that the most important thing is that the technology become commercialized in order to be put to use in the real world. So long as it stays forever in the laboratory it is interesting scientifically, but not of much practical use.

So has there been LENR progress in 2017? For me the answer is yes, but a big commercial breakthrough has not yet happened.

Research and Development

In terms of R&D, I think that it is very significant that Andrea Rossi has come to a point where he has settled on the E-Cat design that he wants to commercialize. For over five years he has been working with E-Cats that he was constantly working on, but which apparently were problematic performance-wise for one reason or another — and at last he seems to be satisfied with the E-Cat QX, especially after he has reached the Sigma 5 level of performance. With this decision made, he can now focusing his R&D efforts on miniaturizing the control system needed to operate the E-Cats, designing industrial-grade plants using the QX, and building the production system needed to get the benefits of economy of scale.


I think the most positive event that happened in 2017 for the commercialization prospects of the E-Cat this year was the settlement reached in the Rossi vs. Industrial Heat case. From all we learned from the documents produced in the court case the working relationship between the two parties was at such a low level that it’s hard to see how they could have successfully commercialized the E-Cat together. The initial contract between Rossi and IH was heavily in favor of Industrial Heat, and if Rossi had prevailed in the lawsuit, and was awarded the $89 million he sought, he would have likely been bound by the contract which gave exclusive commercial rights for the E-Cat to IH for North and South America, Russia, China and Saudi Arabia — a huge segment of the world’s economy.

In terms of E-Cat commercialization, the settlement wiped the slate clean and gave Rossi a fresh start with no restrictions on where he is able to commercialize the E-Cat. He admits now that he was naive in signing the IH contract and states that with the legal experience gained from the lawsuit he now legal team better to prepared to help him negotiate better contracts going forward. Rossi states a new partner is now on board to help him start the commercialization process.

Is the E-Cat for Real?

After nearly seven years since Rossi first went public, that’s the big question that many people are still asking. I understand that many people still have at least some level of uncertainty, if not total doubt. The Stockholm presentation did not provide the final scientific proof that the E-Cat works as claimed, because it was not an independent scientific experiment, and that was disappointing to some. I don’t think that question will be conclusively answered for most people until commercialization is achieved, but speaking for myself, despite everything taking longer than I initially expected, I am as convinced as ever of the validity of the E-Cat. This was the year that I first saw an E-Cat for myself, and from the setup I saw it was clear to me that Andrea Rossi had been hard at work developing what has turned out the be the E-Cat QX. If the measurement instrumentation used in the test that I witnessed was accurate, then he has made a very important breakthrough in terms of energy technology.

So will 2018 be the year that the E-Cat finally hits the marketplace? Andrea Rossi says that this is his hope and goal, shared by his team and partner. He stated today on the JONP: “I am optimist about the fact that in 2018 we will reach the massive industrialization phase. In these 2 months after the demo at the IVA of Stockholm we have added much progress to the Ecat QX in the direction of its industrialization.”

I do hope he is right, but since these things always seem to take longer than initially projected, I am loath to make a prediction. We will just wait and see how things play out.

Other LENR teams

Of course Andrea Rossi is not the only operator in the LENR field. There are other teams at work such as Brillouin, Clean Planet, and me356 who claim to be working towards commercialization. Brilliant Light Power does not claim to be working in LENR, but they also are active in developing what could be a significant energy technology. They have said that they hope to have some products ready for field testing in 2018. None of these has broken out commercially in 2017. Possibly 2018 may see some progress.

Rossi Describes Experimental Protocols for Theory Testing

Andrea Rossi has made the following comment in response to questions about the experiments they plan to do test his theoretical hypotheses.

Andrea Rossi
December 30, 2017 at 9:03 AM

Vince and Yuri:
We are going to make dipole and quadrupole measurements of currents deflections.
For the H/Li ion current we need a magnetic field of circa 0.1 T
To achieve a measurable electromagnetic field we will sorround the plasma with a quadrupole magnet with an angle of 67 degrees with the oscillating the field between 695 and 710 MHz and then measure if an opposite magnetic dipole field gets induced on the z- axis of the quadrupole.
The numbers come from cos30 degrees times hyperfine splitting of 7L1 S2 level and cos60 degrees times the H 1420 MHz line, combined with the spin-speed tilt of the assumed spin of the positive ions and the spin tilt interaction due to the 3 quark structure of the nucleon and the Sigma meson.
From an experimental point of view it will be also good to measure a variety of quadrupole field parameters, both for static and dynamic QM ( quadrupole measurements ), wherein dynamic means adjustable electromagnets around the E-Cat QX to generate a field and static means neodym magnets.
Basic instrumentation:
IR thermometers
Adjustable frame able to allow assembly modifications
Neodymium magnets
Heat insulators
Customized Electromagnets
Signal Generator 0.1-20 MHz
E-Cat QX
Heat exchanger
Control Box

Warm Regards,

One thing that jumps out here is Rossi’s description of a “H/Li ion current” which I have not heard Rossi describe before — I wonder if this is his description of the plasma. Maybe Rossi will update us with some results at some point.

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Holmlid, Rossi, Mills and Lack of Radiation (Optimist)

The following post was submitted as a comment on this thread.

So we have a nuclear level energy release but little or no radiation. Rossi obviously isn’t sure what is going on and thinks it might be antimatter. Mills on the other hand believes due to the lack of radiation that it must be chemical Hydrino based.

But then we have Leif Holmlid that is not speculating but has repeaded, peer-reviewed and published results proving the formation of H(0) ultra dense hydrogen. If the formation of H(0) is followed by breakage of the bond, using for example a low energy laser, this results in a split of the proton and delivers mesons and energy. This has been proven with direct measure of muons that can either cause regular muon cold fusion or decay directly to electrons. In the process the proton mass is mostly lost with the applicable energy release and as the mesons are charged and fast moving, the energy can be harvested directly to electricity. Sounds familiar?

Where Holmlid triggers the H(0) process on a flat and observable 2D surface, Rossi and Mills are burried in a 3D material providing no direct line of sigth on the process happening.

So, if Holmlid’s results are accurate, the Holmlid decay of the proton would explain the large energy release without radiation in both the Rossi and Mills experiments.

Then why are we not regarding this as the primary explanation for LENR and why are we not focusing on repeating Holmlid for further proof? It would sound strange if the three processes are totally unrelated.

Rossi Hypothesizes E-Cat Producing Antimatter

On the Journal of Nuclear Physics recently Andrea Rossi has been discussing a hypothesis that the E-Cat is producing Antimatter. He has confirmed that the key point from Carl Oscar Gullstrom’s address at the Stockholm E-Cat QX presentation comes in the 26:40 to 27:10 part of the video here where Gullstrom’s slide states this:

Low Energy Virtual Particles Theory. I and Rossi are also making the hypothesis of the possibility that the temperatures of the plasma can reach the mass of a new/particle waves in fields that could annihilate without emitting high energy radiations because of the low energy.

In the interview Rossi conducted with the Energy 2.0 Society in early December, Rossi also talked about this at some length. He stated:

“I think it is possible, even if probably it is wrong, but it is possible starting from an intuition, that reading a book of physics as I try to keep me updated, reading a book of physics I met a phrase that has turned on a light. And the phrase was the focus on this fact that when a field reaches a temperature that is equal to the mass (you know that temperature can be linked to mass in physics), that is equal to the mass of a particle — an elementary particle — in that field such particles are generated. And if those particles are generated it is necessary that are generated anti-particles, and this makes things very interesting.

“Because since we start from particles that have a very low mass, because at 2600 Kelvin we have a mass between 1 electron volt- 1.4 electron volt. So we should have in this field, let us compare it to an ocean, we have crests of small waves and anti-waves that are resonances, they are not actually elementary particles, they are resonances in a field that disappear after, say 10 to the minus 23 seconds, they are not particles, they are resonances.

“But these resonances could through the annihilation between these virtual particles and anti-particles could produce energy that is not enough to generate strong ionizing radiations because they are not big waves, they are just small waves. And this could explain why we have heat in this measure that is not the measure of a full nuclear reaction, but we do not have strong radiations. And now I am asking to Gullstrom who is very strong in mathematics and theoretical aspects of physics to calculate if it is possible, and we are working on this. Working on this, we are considering all the spectra of possibilities beyond the experiment and beyond the what is the charge that is the only one with which I got results.”

More recently is this Q&A on the JONP:

December 28, 2017 at 3:37 AM
Dear Andrea Rossi:
I understand that the theory you are working on with Carl-Oscar Gullstrom could suppose the microproduction of antimatter when the temperature of the plasma reaches the mass of low energy virtual particles: am I on track?

Andrea Rossi
December 28, 2017 at 4:16 AM
That’s the hypothesis. My rational part says it is wrong, my instinct says to go on. I go on.
Warm Regards,

So Rossi emphasizes that this is a hypothesis only, and that they are still preparing experiments to formulate a theory.

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Rossi’s Catalyst: Electron Clusters Light Up Christmas This Year (Hank Mills)

The following post has been submitted by Hank Mills

There’s something truly special that makes Andrea Rossi’s Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat) devices produce excess power. Speculation has raged for years about the nature of his so-called secret sauce. Every time a nugget of information is provided about a design element added to a new reactor model or some additional fuel component, hundreds of online posts are made. Yet progress towards mainstream acceptance of the technology remains dreadfully slow. I believe this may now change. I suggest that a unifying catalyst for the E-Cat has emerged that allows us to make sense of the processes taking place in his reactor, the rationale for his various fuel components (along with their sizes, properties, and composition), and the reasoning behind the various reactor designs he’s tested. The application of this knowledge could allow for a wide range of devices that not only produce energy from novel nuclear reactions but manipulate the underlying medium of the vacuum in useful ways. You may not believe in Santa Claus, but in this article I’m about to propose a phenomenological nexus that could keep Rudolph’s nose aglow, provide all the electricity needed to keep Santa’s factory humming along, and keep his sleigh soaring through sky, defying gravity.

When an adequate electrical potential is applied to a cathode in proximity to an anode, a complex series of processes, many simultaneous, take place. The result can be an accumulation of electric charge localized to a tiny region of the cathode surface, usually at a surface irregularity such as a crack, pit, or protrusion. Once a critical level of charge is accumulated, an “ecton” explosion takes place, allowing an almost fluidic stream of electrons to surge out of the cathode. These electrons exist amid a spray of metallic vapor from the “cathode spot” and positively charged gaseous ions. By a process that is not fully understood, these electrons – along with a much smaller quantity of positive ions – self organize into a structure that allows the electrons to stick together in close proximity, defying their mutual electrostatic repulsion due to their like charge. These mysterious objects have been described by scientists around the world going back at least a century. Although referred to by many different names including strange radiation, ectons, charged clusters, electron clusters, exotic vacuum objects (EVOs), charged plasmoids, and micro-ball lightning, they are truly ubiquitous in that they have been produced in an extremely wide array of circumstances in various experimental apparatuses.

One researcher in particular, Kenneth Shoulders, the author of EV – A Tale of Discovery and numerous shorter online documents, spent many years of his life investigating these objects, which he described as exotic vacuum objects or EVOs. Among many other interesting effects, he discovered that some unknown property of this high density, likely torodial structure of electrons could nullify almost its entire effective mass, along with the much higher mass of heavier positive ions trapped inside. The result is that once created, the input energy cost to accelerate an EVO from a cathode to an anode was minuscule, perhaps less than a thousandth of what would be expected. Moreover, if during the course of travel the torodial plasmoid was to interact with physical structures, truly bizarre effects would take place that defied all current scientific knowledge.

As an example, if a one micron sized EVO was made to follow an undersized channel (let’s say perhaps a tenth of a micron in diameter) between two slabs of a dielectric material such as aluminum oxide, the object would atomize the obstructing material into a liquid via a non-thermal process while boring an appropriately sized channel. The aluminum oxide slush would be rapidly ejected out of the channel along the same path as the EVO. In other cases, if an EVO carrying internal positive ions was accelerated into an appropriately configured anode, nuclear reactions could be produced by a number of different mechanisms, including the anomalous kinetic energy acquired by the heavy ions. In many of these impacts transmutation products could be identified.

From his relentless experimentation, Ken Shoulders learned that these EVOs could transform from a “white” excited state in which they emitted electrons (allowing them to be filmed in his custom-made electron pinhole camera) through many intermediate gray states to a “black” state that was for all intents and purposes, invisible. In the black state, the EVO interacted only very weakly with matter. However, with a proper stimulus in the form of an externally applied electric field or several cycles of RF frequencies, the ghostly structure could be brought back to life as a white EVO.

Eventually, Shoulders gained the experience to produce EVOs of various diameters (from hundreds of nanometers to perhaps a few tens of microns or even larger in some cases), maneuver them through the equivalent of small scale obstacle courses including right angle turns, split individual EVOs into multiple smaller units to recombine them at another location on the guidance track, and even fire them off from cathodes at frequencies of up to the megahertz range. Perhaps equally importantly, he learned how to identify the evidence of their presence – their varied but unique signatures.

Ken Shoulders found the track marks of EVOs in a wide variety of materials, including the spent fuel of LENR or cold fusion experiments. However, he was not alone in identifying strange marks left behind by these anomalous self-sustaining structures of electric charge. Other teams around the world, going back decades, had found the same fingerprint markings produced by their experiments.

Exploded wires, high current arc discharges through liquid, electrolytic cold fusion cells, plasma based abnormal glow discharge tubes, Tesla coils, electrical components pushed until dielectric breakdown, and many other apparatuses could produce these self-organizing structures. Even cavitation bubbles produced by ultrasound in a liquid have proven to create them. High voltage isn’t even always needed to create them: tracks have been discovered on the electrodes of six-volt electrolysis cells!

Since they often produce x-rays or low-level gammas when impacting metals, the remains of exploded wires or electrolytic electrodes have been placed near detectors. Up to a couple days after the initial experiment was completed, the tracks of “strange radiation” along with x-rays were found – sometimes at the distance of a meter or through barriers that would have blocked alpha or beta rays! In some experiments, magnetic materials like nickel or iron were found to trap, absorb, or at least prevent the passage of these anomalous emissions. Other materials, like aluminum, sometimes had little effect at all, allowing them to pass through. Likely, a spectrum of EVOs spanning many “gray” levels were passing through space and eventually being detected. Many others were likely lost to the environment. Everywhere this extremely intuitive and highly skilled inventor looked, the evidence of charge clusters seemed to exist. There’s no escaping their presence or effects!

The majority of energy gainful, exothermic processes within the entire range of cold fusion reactors that have been built to date are likely directly related to the initial synthesis, purposeful guidance, and resulting actions of EVOs. Andrea Rossi’s energy catalyzer models from his first powder based systems to the E-Cat QX are no exception. In each model of his reactors, he built in mechanisms – perhaps in his earliest systems unknowingly – that produced both EVOs and the conditions for them to catalyze LENR reactions. As his knowledge of what was transpiring in his reactors grew more complete, he made appropriate enhancements that increased the reaction rate or even allowed the direct production of electricity. But before any examples of such improvements can be provided, another physical phenomenon must be briefly discussed that has been fully and wholly accepted by mainstream physics: surface plasmon polaritons (SPP). I’ll effort to describe this topic in a plain and intuitive manner, which means readers will have to perform their own online research for a more comprehensive summary of the topic. But my explanation should be good enough to convey the fundamental concepts that are critical for grasping what I believe is Andrea Rossi’s now not-so-secret catalyst.

An electrically conductive metal has some number of mobile electrons that are free to move about. Without these charge carriers being able to move about, there could be no such thing as a surface plasmon polariton. Now, let’s examine each component of this potentially confusing term.

The first word, “surface” means that this phenomenon takes place on the surface of a metal. More precisely, SPPs can be found at the interface of a metal surface and a dielectric (which can be a gaseous environment, a solid, or even free space). All the action takes place just above or below the surface.

Next, at this surface is a, “plasmon” which can be very roughly conceptualized as an undulating or bobbing collection of electrons from the metal pushing up from the surface, extending above some distance, and crashing back down again below the surface. Even though the lattice of the metal is solid, these free electrons have the mobility to travel freely and slosh about like a liquid: almost like waves or ripples on a pond.

Finally, we come to the word, “polariton” which refers to how these ripples of electrons (plasmons) at the surface interact with various stimuli from the environment. If an electromagnetic wave in the form of photons (two examples of photon sources could be a laser or infrared light from a hot surface) impacts the metal-dielectric interface at the surface of the metal, the electric component of the photon imparts momentum to the free electrons creating potentially powerful ripples of electrons that spread out in all directions, rapidly dropping in magnitude.

However, there are additional ways to produce surface plasmon polaritons (couplings of plasmons and stimulus at a dielectric interface) other than the impact of photons. Electrically charged particles such as electrons, protons, or ions impacting the surface can also produce the same collective projections of electrons rolling across the surface. Likewise, SPPs can be generated on the metal-dielectric interface of a cathode pulsed with a voltage source. The whole system of the pulsating “surface plasmon” along with the source of stimulus is referred to as a pseudo-particle, hence the overall “surface plasmon polariton.” Now, since we have the word salad sorted out, we can move on!

SPPs are not necessarily EVOs; however, they are important in the creation of EVOs for multiple reasons. They facilitate the electric field amplification on a sharp tip or surface protrusion, such as the pointed wires used by Kenneth Shoulders or the large number of nano-needles found on the surface of planar electrodes in other systems. This allows for the “ecton explosion” that releases a burst of electrons, metal vapor, and ions. Furthermore, SSPs may generate the orientations and organized structures of surface plasmons which, once ejected into the internal space of a reactor from a discharging cathode, might lead to the formation of the EVO.

A good analogy could be a lump of clay on the spinning wheel of a potter. The spinning blob is not a vase or watering pot. To be transformed into a usable, functional piece of pottery, an external force (in this case the hands of the artisan) must intelligently mold and shape the raw material into the desired structure. Similarly, I believe the creator of the universe, devised a method that allows his hands – through the dynamic forces of the active vacuum or aether – to combine the undulating, patterned SPP with some number of heavier ions while shaping the plasmoid that will become the EVO.

Given the above, a reasonable thought would be that by further enhancing SPPs on a metal-dielectric interface, more “ecton” events could be triggered, and, hence, EVOs created. The good news is that there are multiple methods of enhancing SPPs.

To be best of my understanding, here are a several methods that have proven to work in mainstream optics research labs: placing surface protrusions on a planar surface that will produce a large electric field pushing the plasmon upwards, creating pits or cracks on a surface which will make the plasmon project horizontally into each side of the crevice, utilizing an array of differently sized spherical particles that will strengthen the plasmons where the particles make contact, utilizing a dielectric of higher permittivity and/or a conductor of greater conductivity, matching the size of surface irregularities (or powder sizes) to the wave length of oncoming photons to produce resonant conditions, utilizing smaller surface area wires instead of large planar surfaces to reduce dissipation rates for a giving stimulation, and setting up specific patterns of surface features with the goal of creating lenses that can focus plasmons.

But the most obvious way of enhancing the production of a SPP should be obvious: striking the material with an EVO! According to Kenneth Shoulders, in addition to producing various kinds of structural damage, the EVO can dump a massive electrical charge onto a target in an extremely short period of time, perhaps in a picosecond or less! He demonstrated that a hundred billion electrons from a single EVO of approximately one micron in diameter can be imparted during such an energetic strike.

The plasmon undulations of electrons rippling through the surface layers of the target material would be immense. Although Kenneth Shoulders, as far as I’m aware, never referred to SPPs in his writings, he elaborated on how such impacts could create self-sustaining chain reactions. He called them “wildfires.” His reasoning was straightforward. If you have an embrittled surface – such as nickel loaded with hydrogen to create a hydride layer – the kinetic damage of the strike could damage the lattice creating breaks, fractures, and cracks. The result is fracto-emission of electrons – a well-documented phenomenon in scientific literature.

However, going beyond what’s currently understood by mainstream science, he claimed that the wildfires he observed (in addition to heat after death in LENR systems) were due to EVOs being produced by those incidents of fracto-emission. These emissions of charged clusters, likely carrying some number of protons, would then inflict additional damage, creating a semi-perpetuating cycle that could go on for extended periods.

In one experiment that may be useful in visualizing the effect of SPPs, Shoulders placed the exposed, uncovered end portion of a length of insulated wire – 1/64th inch diameter covered with Formvar insulation – within the guide path of an EVO. He then allowed it to be struck multiple times. Under a critical voltage of 4.8 kilovolts, nothing significant happened. However, upon hitting that input voltage, sparks (which always indicate an EVO has been created) were emitted from the entire length of the wire which were powerful enough to blast off chunks of the insulation.

In subsequent strikes, sparks would only emerge from the insulated portions, and not where the insulation had been blasted off. The explanation here is pretty straightforward. Upon being hit by an EVO, the small diameter, low surface area wire allowed for the resulting surface plasmon polariton spikes to be intensified rather than spreading out over a large area and fading out. The SPPs were intensified even further where the dielectric insulating material covered the wire! Where the Formvar was not present, the only dielectric present was the low pressure, perhaps near vacuum gases of the surroundings. Here is a great example of how one EVO strike can trigger the production of many more.)

In recent years there have been many papers and patent applications published that revolve around the concept of powerful surface plasmon polaritons inducing nuclear reactions and isotopic shifting in a more direct manner. Often, the SPPs are stimulated with a specific type of laser, perhaps focused on a hydrogenated surface. Although the scientific jargon can be challenging to mentally digest at times, one explanation is that powerful SPPs on appropriate surfaces can liberate or produce a certain type of “slow neutron” with a large “cross section” that can easily penetrate into the nucleus of nearby atoms to induce isotopic shifting and/or exothermic nuclear reactions.

Another line of thought suggests that such intense SPPs can produce “heavy electrons” that can penetrate the electron shells of an atom to produce other types of reactions that produce energy. Some researchers cojecture that these heavy electrons may actually represent some form of electron cluster shielding the electrostatic charge an interior proton. Whatever the primary nuclear mechanism(s) of the reactions reported in such literature turn out to be, SPPs and the EVOs they help generate are intricately involved – without a doubt.

Using the understanding these two phenomena – SPPs and the “strange radiation” they generate – we can begin to examine how Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat technology evolved over time. In the following I hypothesize several optimizations made on the E-Cat is by no means complete or even totally accurate. But I believe it can provide insights into how Rossi produced SPPs, generated EVOs, and intelligently guided them to generate excess power. I’ll try to be brief on each point.

1 – In at least some if not all of his earliest systems, we know Andrea Rossi degassed his fuel under high vacuum to remove trapped gases. This removes trapped oxygen, water, and carbon monoxide among other contaminants that can hinder LENR reactions for multiple reasons – including the fact they take up space in the lattice where you want absorbed protons to go! If you don’t remove these gases, the hydrogen embrittlement process can’t happen. Another problem they cause that is directly relevant to this article, is that they can hinder the production of EVOs in a plasma. Kenneth Shoulders explained that water, oxygen, and electronegative gases can “suck up” electrons which inhibits the processes that produce charge clusters in a plasma environment. Cycles of heating and degassing may eliminate this problem.

2 – Andrea Rossi chose nickel powder with a high surface area. The carbonyl nickel he used (a specific type of nickel powder that’s commercially available and not the highly toxic gas) is covered in sub-micron spikes, tubercules, valleys, and protrusions. Not only would these features increase the effective surface area, but they would allow for SPPs to be enhanced. According to the Fluid Heater patent, he baked his particles to heat trapped water molecules which produced internal explosions that further enhanced the surface features.

3 – Nano-particles of palladium and other elements were mixed in with the nickel fuel. Utilizing nano-particles as “reverse spillover catalysts” can dramatically boost the adsorption and absorption of hydrogen into the nickel below. However, in regards to SPPs, the textured surface produced either by sputtering of the nickel or applied metallic nano-powders allows for an amplification effect in which the magnitude of the plasmons are increased.

4 – Ultra high temperatures are generated inside the reactor that can produce infrared photons, split molecular hydrogen into atomic hydrogen, and emit electrons. One possible way he has done this is by sometimes utilizing tungsten heating elements which can withstand the temperatures required. In addition to creating atomic hydrogen that can be much more rapidly absorbed by the nickel than molecular hydrogen, any free electrons, charged ions, or sufficiently energetic photons will be capable of producing SPPs on the surface of the fuel. These may be enhanced by the nano-particles coating the surface of the nickel powder or the spikes and protrusions found on the particles.

5 – In some setups, with or without other forms of stimulation or enhancement of SPPs, pulses of direct current may be applied through the body of the reactor. This likely not only creates intense plasmons ripples on the fuel but may ionize the gaseous environment to some extent. This can create additional free electrons and ions that may impact the fuel, enhancing hydrogen absorption and/or further magnifying the SPP effect. As will continue to be discussed, the production of plasma by some mechanism seems to be a common and repetitive theme.

6 – The individual modules of the original one megawatt plant tested in Italy utilized RFGs (radio frequency generators) that activated after a certain temperature profile had been reached. This would have produced a hydrogen (with perhaps a touch of lithium or other elements) plasma that not only could dramatically accelerate the hydrogenation process – yielding a brittle surface – but also generate EVOs. Kenneth Shoulders discussed and provided evidence that a pure plasma, with no metallic nano-particles from a cathode, could produce tracks and holes in a target called a “witness plate” that was either charged positively or grounded. In the reactors of this first one megawatt plant, some EVOs could have randomly impacted nickel fuel that may have been embedded onto the inner walls of the reactor body. However, Andrea Rossi used copper outer shells in at least some of his reactors. If the conductive exterior of such a reactor had been either grounded (earthed) or attached to a positive electrical potential, the EVOs would have been much more likely to impact the fuel on their way to the anode. Such impacts would have produced immense SPPs – which could then have stimulated nuclear reactions!

7 – Although I cannot find the reference, I specifically remember a reference that has always intrigued me, yet only in recent weeks have I recognized the full significance. In this very early article about one of Andrea Rossi’s first public tests of the E-Cat, an attendee reported a box attached to the reactor that was labled, “Tesla Coil.” For a long time, I thought that he was simply using the Tesla Coil to produce plasma capable of dissociating molecular hydrogen. Now, I recognize that there was another important reason. Kenneth Shoulders and others have been able to produce the signature tracks of EVOs by allowing the glowing streamers of a high voltage Tesla Coil to hit a target. According to him, an EVO leads each of these streamers as they travel towards a target. Connecting this to Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat, such an EVO at the tip of a streamer would produce powerful SPP waves upon striking hydrogenated, embrittled nickel powder. Not only would initial nuclear reactions take place via multiple possible routes, but the powerful strike could produce fracto-emission of electrons from broken bonds in the lattice the lattice. The continual cycles of EVO production could allow for periods in which the reactor could operate in a self-sustaining mode without input.

8 – Some of his reactors, such as the Lugano Device, could have produced plasma in their interiors due to high amplitude harmonics or resonance frequencies produced by the three phase AC applied to their resistance coils. At already very high internal temperatures, the barriers to plasma production could have been lowered enough so that this sub-optimal, indirect method was at least adequate to allow for EVO production. Utilizing the highest AC voltage possible would also likely help.

9 – Perhaps the most important fuel additive Rossi has utilized so far is lithium. Over the years and decades, multiple teams and scientists have discovered ways of inducing fusion between forms of hydrogen (protium, deuterium, or ions) and lithium at energies far below what’s officially predicted by mainstream physics. Two in particular stand out. In one series of papers available online, a prestigious researcher successfully and dramatically increased the rate enhancement of proton-lithium fusion by firing hydrogen into molten lithium. By keeping the lithium both in the molten state (near the melting temperature) and the surface clean of contaminants (no oxides or nitrides creating a barrier), he could induce individual fusion events using strikes with an energy of only a few thousand KeV.

Additionally, Unified Gravity Corporation has published results in which protons and lithium in the plasma state can undergo fusion reactions within a very low (if narrow) window of around 200eV. Due to these results, the idea of independent protons, accelerated to moderate energies, impacting and fusing with lithium atoms in an E-Cat seems quite feasible. Even more interestingly, the thought of EVOs carrying protons striking lithium wetted nickel powder is exciting!

Due to these charged clusters reducing mass and inertia somewhat like a hypothesized warp bubble, they could accelerate protons to far higher energies than those existing normally in the plasma. With proper tuning of whatever mechanism may be producing the plasma (ultra-hot heating element, radio frequency generator, high amplitude harmonics from the resistors, electrical impulses sent through the fuel) certain windows of collision energies could be carefully tuned in. Finally, lithium (like potassium and sodium rumored to have been used as a catalyst in some of his previous systems) is an electro-positive element that may help induce the production of EVOs.

10 – The Quark, or E-Cat QX, represents the current pinnacle of Andrea Rossi’s development of the energy catalyzer. A comparison of this device to some of Kenneth Shoulders test systems yields striking similarity. Moreover, the basic idea of a discharge tube with a cathode and an anode achieving a mode of excess power generation – in the forms of heat, light, and electricity — isn’t new. If his device works in a similar manner to others (some of which were focusing on electrical production rather than generation of thermal energy) then EVOs are without doubt involved.

We know so that there are two electrodes with a narrow channel between them that’s almost certainly composed of a dielectric material like quartz. As Kenneth Shoulders has explained, a narrow channel surrounded by dielectric is an ideal guide for an EVO. If there is a significant gas pressure and the surface is even reasonably smooth, the charge clusters will travel through such a cappilary tube from one end to the other, not touching the surface! The narrow tube may service another purpose. If the overall size of the electrodes are larger than the diameter of the hole in the dielectric, a field intensification process may boost the electric field in that region and allow an EVO to be generated more easily. Additionally, we don’t know anything about the surface characteristics of his electrodes. However, if they have been roughened up in some manner, this would assist the formation of EVOs. Likely, the electrodes have been embrittled due to being loaded with hydrogen and perhaps some quantity of lithium. Shoulders has described a method in which he coated a cathode with titanium hydride. The brittle and self replenishing nature of the surface – in addition to the hydrogen it continually emitted – was said to be useful in generating the EVO discharges. I expect that a nickel or nickel-manganese electrode (the manganese helping eliminate oxygen and sulfur which are contaminants) with a hydride layer would work in the same manner.

To produce huge amounts of energy, only the smallest quantities of hydrogen and lithium would be required. Thin coatings on the electrodes would likely be enough. Another reason for this is that those who have seen the actual reaction chamber report no sign of foreign material: the tube seems clear, transparent, and obscured. Perhaps an interesting thought is that over time molten lithium could, perhaps, work its way from the outer area of the cathode to the tip. One of the problems that Kenneth Shoulders had to overcome was the degradation of his sharp points on the tips of cathode wires. After many firings, the sharp points would become so blunted that higher and higher voltages would be required to emit EVOs. In addition to using metal hydride coatings, he also used reservoirs of low melting point conductive substances such as mercury to overcome the problem. Gradually attracted by electric forces towards the tip of the cathode, the minuscule quantity of mercury would wet the tip, form the needle like launch point of the EVO, and be ejected off during the explosive discharge. I can’t help but wonder if almost imperceptable quantities of lithium in the E-Cat QX have replaced mercury in Shoulder’s test systems. Or, perhaps, other electro-positive elements with a low melting point such as sodium could be used. The light from his reactor, a slightly orange bright yellow, sure does look similar to the glow of a sodium plasma tube.

Once the E-Cat QX is discharged, a burst of EVOs are likely generated. Many of these may be too small to be seen by the naked eye; however, Frank Acland has reported seeing a tiny dot of light positioned in the central tube between electrodes. Ignoring a wide range of possible nuclear reactions that might happen mid-flight, the EVO strike on the anode could induce a number of effects. Direct thermonuclear fusion by slamming transported positive ions to anode surface is one; the application of an anomalous kinetic energy capable of being thermalized is another; a powerful triggering of Surface Plasmon Polaritons of extreme magnitude capable of producing neutrons or heavy electrons (more EVOs) is exciting, and the continuing cycles of fracto-emission could be an explanation for how the plasma may be sustained with such a low voltage. Most likely, a couple of these mechanisms are dominant. Regardless, the EVO strike would be a potential trigger for all of them!

To go into the possible dynamics of the next series of reactions that would occur after such an LENR event on the anode would be an exhausting task. So, in short, I’ll simply say that I imagine a series of ejected particles, ions, and EVOs traveling back and forth between the electrodes helping the plasma sustain at nearly zero energy cost and an ultra low voltage.

The direct electrical production reported by Rossi would likely emerge from at least two sources. First, Kenneth Shoulders reported that EVOs can deposit their charge on an anode or secondary electrode target. The anode in the E-Cat QX is likely being bombarded by EVOs, and the impacts will be temporarily reversing the positive charge of the anode to a negative charge. This could likely be producing excess power spikes being fed back into the power supply. Secondly, Harold Aspden’s Law of Electrodynamics predicts that oppositely charged particles of different mass (in this case massive protons and light electrons) traveling in opposite directions would produce a linear electrodynamic force in a plasma – what I understand to be a flow of magnetic vector potential in one direction. This would produce multiple effects that could lead to electrical energy production and the overheating of Andrea Rossi’s power supply. Due to the nature of this “cold electricity” the engineering required may be challenging, because this type of electricity may abide by a different set of laws than ordinary “hot electricity.”

As a final note about the E-Cat QX, I’d like to point out that some suggest that the EVOs are a form of “magnetic monopole” ejecting a beam of magnetism. This would be in direct contradiction to the observed behavior of a charged cluster that closely resembles that of a negatively charged electron. EVOs are propelled linearly along electrical fields, are repulsed by like charges, continuously emit electrons observable in electron cameras, and seem to project a narrow beam of pure “magnetic vector potential.” This makes sense due to their torodial nature. The simplest way to think of them are tiny versions of macro scale perfectly wound torodial inductors – such as those used in electrical transformers. Their magnetic of an EVO is contained within the body of the torus while vector potential sprays out from the center hole like a jet of liquid. This narrowly confined powerful electric field likely extracts electron-positron pairs from the seething zero-point energy field to power the entire structure. Due to the fact that Maxwell’s original equations were gutted by Heaviside, many physicists (although not all) treat the scalar and vector potentials as mathematical abstractions. I’m looking forward to the EVOs inside the E-Cat QX proving the absolute reality of the scalar and vector potentials.

As you can see, I believe that Andrea Rossi’s true catalyst hasn’t been a particular ingredient, fuel additive, or stimulation method. All of these modifications have likely been useful and helpful – some working better than others. Fundamentally, though, the EVO is the true prime mover of the E-Cat. These entities hurriedly extracting energy from the vacuum and applying it to the reactor by a number of different mechanisms are responsible for the production of heat, light, and electricity in his systems.

This makes E-Cat technology even more interesting because it’s a hybrid system: extracting nuclear energy and zero-point energy at the same time. By examining the work of numerous researchers who have been investigating these electron clusters for decades, we can begin to understand how to optimize LENR systems. We’ll probably learn much about manipulating the zero-point energy field in the process – guiding us towards an understanding of the anomalous electrogravitic craft (including the man made ones) flying in our skies. The physics of the E-Cat won’t simply power out planet but also lead humanity to the stars, at warp speeds!

I encourage readers to spend a little time this holiday season considering the dynamics of how photons, electrons, ions, and plasmas may interact with roughened, properly sized surfaces to produce powerful Surface Plasmon Polaritons and EVOs that can induce nuclear reactions. Then, of course, how these EVOs can keep the process going by exciting even more intense SPPs and fracto-emission of additional charged clusters from hydrogen embrittled metals. Perhaps this coming year will be an exciting one with many detailed replications of the Rossi Effect.

Merry Christmas and an Energetic New Year!

Hank Mills

The Power Density of the E-Cat QX

A comment from Alberto on the Journal of Nuclear Physics came up with the following calculation

I understood that the E-Cat reactor has a diameter of 0.08 cm and a length of 0.6 cm. This makes a volume of 0.04^2 x Pi x 0.6 cm^3, which makes 0.003 cubic centimeters. The power that has been measured during the Stockolm test is 20 W. These two numbers make the power density of the E-Cat QX 20 W/0.003 cm^3. This energy density is stunning, it makes a power density of 333 x 20 W/cm^3= 6.6kW/cm^3
Now I understand why you are thinking to a jet engine operated by the E-Cat QX. We are at the eve of a new industrial revolution.

I asked Andrea Rossi if the calculations were correct, and he replied ” the density of power of the E-Cat QX is very high and yes, I think that jet engines or gas engines can be born by this technology. The numbers are what they are.”

If my calculations are correct, converting cm^3 to liters are as follows:

6600kW/l = 6.6MW/l

One point of comparison I have found is from Wikipedia here where it states that Plutonium has a power density of 38,360W/m^3.

In terms of m^3, the E-Cat QX numbers we are working with would be 6.6GW/m^3

Please someone correct me if I am wrong, and maybe there are some people out there who can help to see how this compares to other energy sources.

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Weyl-Kondo Quantum Semi-metal Defines Deuterated Palladium (Russ George)

The following post was originally published by Russ George on the Atom Ecology website here, and is reposted here with permission.

December 21, 2017

An international team of physicists has just now “stumbled upon” an entirely new quantum material, which they have called “Weyl-Kondo semi-metal”.

In these quirky materials scientists don’t necessarily have the theories to predict the behaviour of such quantum materials, more often they create them experimentally first and measure them to observe their properties hoping the observations of new facts might one day lead to new theories.

Are we heading back to the roots of physics where observed mysteries comes first and theory only thereafter?
The new findings, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, come from a team at the Vienna University of Technology carrying out experimental work to develop new materials, and a team at Rice University carrying out theoretical work.

‘We really just stumbled upon this, suddenly, we found that the mass (of material in hand) had gone from like 1,000 times the mass of an electron to zero,’ said Dr Lai.

This is a definitive atom-ecology phenom characteristic of “Weyl fermions”, elusive particles first proposed over 80 years ago. The scientists understood that their particles were originating due to a phenomenon known as the “Kondo effect”, leading them to name their new material Weyl-Kondo semi-metal. Another characteristic of this ‘quantum material’ are its powerful interactions, beyond the potency of interactions defined or even predicted by standard physics.

Cold Fusion created a firestorm of dogmatic controversy in the world of physics, it was and is outside of the box of simple physics and demands a quantum mechanism… click to read more

The key to the new quantum material? Palladium, or rather doped palladium, a good starting point as palladium when doped with other elements such as deuterium has already shown the extraordinary characteristic of suddenly becoming a super-conductor another of the Weyl-Kondo expected characteristics.

Of course the anomalous results of the late great Martin Fleischmann and his colleague Stanley Pons are even more unexpected characteristics of their favoured ‘quantum-material’.

March 29, 1989

You might recall their momentous announcement of their findings following publication of their first paper in a prestigious journal of electro-chemistry…. their discovery became known as ‘COLD FUSION.’

The announcement of the room temperature fusion back in March of 1989 drew immediate attention around the world. It was so inexplicable that famous Nobel Laureates in Physics including Glen Seaborg, Linus Pauling, and Edward Teller soon declared that the effect must be a quantum effect. That quantum effect would allow for the screening of the normal Coulomb repulsion that keeps hydrogen nuclei from getting near enough to spontaneously fuse.

In November 1989, the Energy Research Advisory Board of the Department of Energy in the United States made five recommendations regarding Cold Fusion, among them, to check for the production of helium and of tritium in the electrolyte in which cold fusion was supposed to have occurred.

Helium, especially 4He and tritium have appeared in many cold fusion experiments in Japan, Italy, Russia, USA, Canada, India and China, and according to Li Xing Zhong at Tsinghua University Beijing China, it is one of the strongest pieces of evidence for condensed matter nuclear reactions, as it implies a new mechanism operating at low energy: selective resonance tunnelling (a quantum effect).

Here’s a link to a report in the Magazine WIRED revealing my finding of 4He in a controlled experiment. Side by side in real-time over 28 days helium was measured in palladium exposed to normal hydrogen, the control, and deuterium the active cold fusion reactor. The graph pictured is a spoiler for the report.

Above is a sample of data showing a rise in 4He in a simple “cold fusion” experiment. Across the bottom in green is one set of data points where simple hydrogen was loaded into palladium, the red data set shows the identical experiment running deuterium gas. By simply heating the materials to 200 C abundant helium is produced. Experiment conducted at Stanford Research by Russ George sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto.

“The word quantum in quantum materials means they have properties that cannot be described by classical physics – we have to invoke quantum physics,” said Dr Amalia Coldea, a quantum materials researcher at the University of Oxford of this new finding.

While this new research is still of interest primarily to other quantum researchers, lead author Prof Buehler-Paschen is clear about where it could ultimately lead.

“Currently we design these materials to find new effects,” she said. “We search for them because these effects could be very useful, with technological applications.”

The most celebrated quantum materials are the high-temperature superconductors discovered in the 1980s, so named for their ability to conduct electrical current without resistance at temperatures well above those of traditional superconductors. Deuterated palladium is just such a superconductor.

Another classic example is the heavy fermion materials discovered in the late 1970s. In these, electrons appear to be effectively hundreds of times more massive than normal and, equally unusual, the effective electron mass seems to vary strongly as temperature changes. Could it be that these massive electron charges inside of the ultra-dense metallic deuterium that is its natural state when loaded into a palladium lattice is responsible for ‘cold fusion.’

Holmlid fusion


“Mesons from Laser-Induced Processes in Ultra Dense Hydrogen H(0)” – Leif Holmlid – Published: January 12, in PLOS ONE. It seems a very unusual form of ultra dense fusion is in hand in an incredibly simple to reproduce form with all the precision particle physics anyone might ever demand to substantiate it. Click here to read more

A scant few experimentalists and even fewer theoretical physicists have dedicated their careers to explaining the workings of such quantum materials. Much of the theoretical work focuses on the collective behavior that emerges in electronic materials undergoing transformation from one quantum state to another. It is near such points of transformation, or “quantum critical points,” that phenomena like high-temperature superconductivity and associated cold fusion effects are observed to occur.

These ‘quantum materials’ share some of the characteristics of topological insulators, a type of quantum material that gained international attention following the awarding of the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics. Topological materials have only been defined in insulators, and electricity would flow only on the materials’ surface and not through the bulk. The topological conductors, however, carry electricity in the bulk, thanks to the Weyl fermions.

“These topological conductors can be described within the textbook framework of independent electrons,” Grefe said. “The central question, as challenging as it is fascinating, is this: What happens when the electron correlations are strong?”

Si, Lai and Grefe demonstrated that their zero-mass fermions are intimately tied to both strong electron correlations and nontrivial topology.

“We quickly realized that these are Weyl fermions that originate from a quintessential strong-correlation physics called the Kondo effect,” Grefe said. “We therefore dubbed this state a Weyl-Kondo semimetal.”

The Kondo effect captures how a band of electrons, which are so strongly correlated with each other that they act as localized spins, behave in a background of conduction electrons.

“We found that the Kondo effect makes the Weyl fermions move with a velocity that differs by several orders of magnitude from the noninteracting case,” Lai said. “This allowed us to predict that the electron correlations will enhance a particular quantity in the temperature dependence of the specific heat by a mind-boggling factor of a billion.”

Effectively these massive electron charges combined with the characteristic that they are behaving at room temperature rather like they were a billion times hotter is the very bridge classical HOT FUSION had demanded for COLD FUSION to exist.

There remain some mysteries in cold fusion amongst which are the clearly missing highly energetic radiations that accompany typical HOT FUSIONS of deuterons, but that’s another part of the story, stay tuned.

Russ George

The Patsy, the Working Group, and the Hardware (Hank Mills)

The following post has been submitted by Hank Mills

There’s a saying that there’s nothing new under the sun. That adage also holds true for the unidentified flying objects that have been sighted in the skies of our planet since antiquity. In fact, the astonishing rock-solid evidence of a startling encounter with a seemingly intelligently controlled craft released by the Pentagon’s newly declassified Advanced Aerospace Threat Identification Program (AATIP) isn’t really a breakthrough, a revelation, or a discovery of paradigm shattering magnitude.

At least hundreds – if not thousands – of equally significant events have been documented over the past century. Being tracked on radar repeatedly violating our airspace, showing off their technological superiority while interacting with our aircraft, remotely disrupting the control systems of our nuclear arsenal, and in some cases crashing to Earth leaving behind hardware and corpses, they’ve attracted plenty of attention by the powers that be.

Starting at least immediately after the crash of an extraterrestrial space craft outside of Roswell, New Mexico in 1947 and continuing through the cold war to modern times, a conglomeration of influential parties and individuals identified by multiple different names in the history of ufology that I refer to here as the “Working Group”, has made it its mandate to manage all knowledge and information about these non-human visitors.

After decades of repeated, frequent visitation, the bulk of the scientific community still equate all unidentified aerial phenomena to snake oil and pseudo-scientific woo woo. Compared to the Working Group, the AATIP is nothing more than a Johnny-come-lately entity attempting to figure out exactly has been going on.

The gun camera footage of a clearly anomalous craft obtained by two Super Hornet jet fighter pilots, along with associated witness testimony, shows those involved with the AATIP haven’t been twiddling their thumbs. There’s no denying the significance of the incident; no human built craft utilizing even the most advanced publicly known technology could maneuver in such a manner. No plane, drone, or rocket ever built can make such hard turns, accelerate so rapidly, and instantly stop on a dime; moreover, the visible lack of any component resembling a known propulsion or control mechanism is confounding, to say the least.

But a dozen such videos would not compare to the evidence and assets collected by the Working Group, because they have actual hardware. That’s right, I refuse to pull my punches here: they have had since early July of 1947, and possibly before, at least partially intact extraterrestrial space craft along with the bodies of their occupants.

The bounty acquired from the find of an ET craft would be incalculable. For a moment, consider the massive wealth of knowledge that could be obtained from the study of any one item found aboard. Ignoring the bodies and the organ systems composing their overall anatomy, single cells from the bodies could contain DNA, genes, proteins, and organelles capable of keeping thousands of biologists up to their neck in work for their entire careers. Any bacteria, viruses, parasites, symbiotes, or other organisms found while analyzing these cells could represent additional life-forms that would require additional study. This would be a serious matter, because no one would want a beast such as the fictional “Andromeda Strain” pathogen escaping and wreaking havoc.

From a material science point of view – not even considering the process of trying to figure out their purpose or function – every device found would have to be studied intently. A single gadget could be composed of totally unknown polymers, alloys, semi-conductors, super-conductors, and other materials that would make even the often hyped up Earth material, graphene, seem oddly mundane. From one ray gun or communicator, a hundred new industries could be spawned, each producing materials that could change our civilization as significantly as plastics did last century! Since it seems plausible that extraterrestrial craft capable of traversing long distances would utilize information technology, the computer systems of any such ship would be worthy of intense study.

Already, we humans on Earth can fit the equivalent of a full-sized library of books in a single computer. If our data storage technologies can store hundreds of gigabytes in postage stamp sized flash memory chips, I’d suppose that such a space faring species could achieve greater densities. Hacking into such an extraterrestrial database, if we could even interpret a fraction the content, might give us access to the accumulated knowledge of a thousand different cultures spanning the galaxy – each ancient and having existing in a technologically sophisticated state for potentially thousands or millions of years. As you can see, not even factoring in the energy production and propulsion technologies that could be acquired from the study of such a vehicle, the Working Group possessed hardware and biology of infinite worth.

There was certainly a need to apply a great deal of caution during the examination and investigation of these materials. Perhaps, when it came to certain specifics and details, there could have even been a legitimate need for a certain level of secrecy – at least initially. But the Working Group didn’t simply take a modest length of time (perhaps a few months or up to a year) to assess what they found before at least sharing some of the fundamentals of the discovery with the public.

Primarily, the extraterrestrial nature of the craft found at Roswell should have been admitted to and the initial cover-up, including weather balloon absurdity, emphatically apologized for. Instead, they decided to continually suppress the knowledge obtained from the very citizens they were supposed to serve, while hungrily seeking more assets of extraterrestrial origin for their own purposes.

They have continued along this corrupt path to this very day. A few readers of this article may argue that someone or some faction of the Working Group (most likely after all these years it’s not a totally monolithic organization) allowed for the creation of the AATIP, and, therefore, are starting a process of disclosure. “We should be encouraged and celebrate that disclosure is beginning,” they may exclaim. “After being kept in the dark so long, we should just be happy they are letting some information out! Why bite the hand that feeds us?”

We, members of the public in the declassified world, have been kept trapped in a narrowly confined paradigm due to the initial decisions and continuing efforts of the Working Group. While ET craft are flying in our skies above our heads, we’re allowed to be taught that any intelligent extraterrestrial life is likely far away (if we are not alone in the universe altogether),that there will never be a way of traveling faster than light to make interstellar space travel practical (at least in a normal human lifespan), and we know almost everything of practical value when it comes to physics (Einstein’s E=MC2 tells us everything we need to know).

Not only are we kept trapped in a tangled web of falsehoods to keep the elephant in the room almost invisible, but the vast majority of our leaders are as well. Our elected decision makers are kept ignorant despite the reality of such contact being of utmost urgency. Apparently, the Working Group assumes that they’ve been bestowed some divine right to govern over all these matters. Operating outside the governmental structure established in the constitution, denying the concept of democracy, seeking to maintain the status quo of secrecy above all other considerations: their tyranny knows no bounds.

If the members of the former AATIP project, which has reportedly been defunded and shut down, are truly seeking to serve the public good, they should do more than push to declassify the UFO evidence they’ve accumulated. With equal vigor, they should openly share what they know or have discovered about the Working Group and urge the official government of the United to bring all matters pertaining to UFOs under the control of duly elected representatives. I suspect that the members of the AATIP project and the civilian organizations they are now coordinating with would have little or no problem with this.

What may complicate the efforts to get at the truth about the UFO topic is that the Working Group and their allies likely had already built their own replications of extraterrestrial vehicles by the 1960s or 1970s, at the latest. By examining the workings of the craft recovered at Roswell and other recovery sites, they likely discovered that Maxwell’s original conceptualization of electrodynamics (before Heaviside gutted his original equations) offered a correct interpretation of physical reality in most regards. I believe a significant percentage of unknown craft in our skies exhibiting seemingly impossible maneuvers are of human origin: utilizing a complete grasp of physical reality rather than the tiny subset used by aeronautical engineers to produce chemically fueled rockets and jet engines.

The classical view of electrodynamics was one in which an aether or universal medium pervaded all space, even existing in the hard vacuum light years away between stars. In relation to the study of electrical forces, a flow of aether was the source of the “magnetic vector potential” which Maxwell considered to be the prime mover and source of momentum for all electromagnetic phenomenon. Along with the “scalar potential” (which could be considered somewhat analogous to the atmospheric pressure of the aether), these two concepts gave electromagnetism physical reality, something more than mathematical equations. The manipulation of this aether could allow for the manipulation of gravity, inertia, and mass. This is because if such a structure to the vacuum actually exists, these forces are not properties intrinsic to matter; instead, these forces are simply a result of the interaction of matter with the medium in which they occupy. Electrodynamics could be directly compared to the hydrodynamic study of fluids. Around the year 1900 or shortly after, cynics began to dismiss the idea of the aether. Then a little while later, Heaviside truncated and reformulated Maxwell’s original equations completely eliminating the magnetic vector potential and scalar potential. This was the travesty beyond imagination that crippled humanity’s path to the stars. To get an idea of what his self-confessed, quoted “murder” of the magnetic vector potential and “elimination” of the scalar potential did, imagine a raging, powerful river the top few inches of has been frozen over by an arctic blast. The currents, pressures, and movements of the flowing water beneath the icy layer above are the dynamic, momentum carrying “potentials” that Heaviside eliminated. All that’s left to be seen is the frozen, stationary surface which roughly represents the magnetic and electric fields in this analogy. Sadly, this leaves humanity with only a tiny sub-set of physical reality to engineer.

Multiple witnesses have come forward revealing that in top secret “special access projects” exotic craft with “reactionless” propulsion systems (meaning they don’t burn rocket or jet fuels to push matter backwards to get an equal and opposite Newtonian push forward) have been built and successfully flown. A detailed description of one possible such craft, referred to as the Fluxliner ARV (Alien Reproduction Vehicle), is available in multiple documentaries available with a quick internet search — see one source here: The witness who allegedly saw the craft and worked with a trusted colleague to produce detailed diagrams has provided a plethora of information.

Basically, in accordance with the results of various private experimenters and theoreticians, the Fluxliner ARV manipulated the aether occupying its external environment via extremely intense electric fields. Their specific orientations producing an asymmetrical gradient in the density of the aether, a propulsive force was produced that could allow for faster than light travel. Once the propulsion system was activated with the output of two deep cycle lead acid batteries, the energy of the vacuum itself sustained the craft. This propulsion system not only allowed faster than light travel but an elimination of inertial forces that would harm occupants and a deflector barrier to prevent catastrophic strikes from interstellar dust: all the primary systems of Star Trek’s Star Ship Enterprise simplified and combined!

Long time readers E-Cat World, who have followed the saga of Andrea Rossi’s technology, might recognize the probable involvement of these “potentials” and the aether in the Energy Catalyzer. To explain the connection, I must go back to the work of another amazingly intuitive inventor named Kenneth Shoulders.

Often described as the father of microelectronics for his pioneering work in chip making technologies during the earlier portion of his career, he labored for decades in the later years of his life investigating anomalous yet ubiquitous objects called Exotic Vacuum Objects. He discovered that when you apply a sufficiently quick high voltage pulse across the gap between a sharpened cathode and an anode, what appears to be a dense self-organized ball or torus of electrons appear.

Somehow defying the repulsive force between their like electrical charges, they hold together in an organized pattern. These structures of intense charge density – also called charge clusters or electron clusters — confined in such a tiny region (often around one micrometer in diameter although capable of growing far larger) have the capability of doing all sorts of nearly unimaginable things. The ability to accelerate heavy positive ions to a fraction of the speed of light with nearly no energy cost, bore tunnels through solid materials in a process that de-molecularizes matter, induce nuclear reactions by multiple mechanisms, produce powerful beams of magnetic vector potential, seemingly fade in and out of existence: these critters are as strange as they are potentially useful.

Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat devices likely have used EVOs, in one flavor or another since there are multiple types, as catalysts to induce nuclear reactions. To fully explain the connections between EVOs and LENR would require another essay, but suffice it to say that once understood the links are obvious. What’s most interesting is to consider the processes by which the E-Cat QX is likely extracting energy from the vacuum: drawing from the scalar and vector potentials that aren’t supposed to exist according to the officialdom of science. In reality, Andrea Rossi is re-inventing a wheel that’s closely related to technologies the Working Group de-engineered from extraterrestrial craft long ago.

When Kenneth Shoulders first submitted patent applications, the government attempted to classify his work – nullifying years of laboratory time, theoretical work by his close colleague Harold Puthoff, and a significant monetary investment by his financial benefactor. He managed to rescue his technology from being suppressed by the military-industrial complex only be producing and distributing a book titled, “EV – A Tale of Discovery.” to several of his closest friends, associates, and colleagues.

After refusing to disclose to whom he sent the detailed step by step description of his work up to that point, the government relented and dropped their effort to classify his patent applications. There are many reasons why they may have desired to impose such a classification. Over-unity energy production via generation of linearly directed longitudinal waves (magnetic vector potential) that due to a lack of a hydrodynamic swirling component “curl” (a contaminating magnetic field component) do not produce the back EMF Lenz Law demands, induction of nuclear reactions with ordinary stable materials for very low input energies, the capability in some configurations to produce powerful electromagnetic pulses, the ability to produce all sorts of anomalous effects in materials: these all may or may not have been involved in their decision to try and bury his years of labor.

But another possibility instantly comes to mind. Kenneth Shoulders supposed that an individual EVO – an tightly confined organized pattern of electrons with perhaps heavier ions at their core – would experience acceleration when its overall shape was distorted. To conceptualize this idea, imagine a symmetrical, roughly round ball of rotating electrons with a vortex going down the middle. If through external manipulation one side of this torodial system became skinnier while the other became fatter (perhaps becoming more like an asymmetrical tear drop) a gradient in the density of the aether would be a result. According to many modern theorists who have analyzed the connections between classical electrodynamics and hydrodynamics, this would produce an imbalance of force producing motion.

The glowing and seemingly electric aura around the UFO video released by the AATIP seems to indicate it was surrounded by a powerful electric field – perhaps creating a gradient in the aether around itself to manipulate gravity, mass, and inertia (which are all really different manifestations of potentials that Heaviside eliminated from Maxwell’s equations) to perform the beyond zippy accelerations recorded by the Navy pilots interviewed by the New York Times. Now the connection becomes clear and leads to a number of questions.

What if yet another reason Kenneth Shoulder’s work was attempted to be classified is that the basic propulsion mechanism of his electron clusters (EVOs) and the extraterrestrial craft visiting our planet are identical? (Including the craft built by the Working Group?)

What if a comprehensive study of Kenneth Shoulder’s electron clusters (EVOs) by a broader range of laboratories would reveal the existence and primary importance of Maxwell’s electromagnetic potentials (the true motive force below the surface of the frozen over river) to the world?

What if the consequence of this knowledge being openly accepted as scientific fact – no longer only discussed by a select few – would be a chilling yet infuriating wake up call that craft with the properties attributed to UFOs could have been built with decades old technology?

The potential answers to the above three questions are probably of high importance to the Working Group; yet, whether or not they were involved, directly or indirectly, with the attempted suppression of his work is unknown.

My hope is the future videos, photographs, and witness interviews the remnants of the AATIP may provide won’t turn this de-funded project into a patsy for the Working Group. When people look towards the AATIP standing next to a monitor showing footage of a flying disc that had been classified for a few years, they need to notice the crashed discs, alien bodies, and recovery teams in the landscape behind them, extending all the way back to 1947. Although the precise activities, motives, and agenda of the AATIP is not fully understood (there’s always a chance that someone from the Working Group has been interfacing with them), in the worst case they are likely luminous beings of light compared to the dark entities that preceeded them.

If we are extremely lucky, individuals who were associated with the AATIP may continue to work together, even if in an unofficial manner, to expose the full and uncensored history of the Working Group. Then, if we are extremely fortunate, one day soon the Roswell UFO could be displayed for all to see on the White House lawn. Only then can we travel to the stars and properly introduce the human species to our countless, infinitely varied, and likely very interesting neighbors.

Hank Mills

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Rossi and the Robots

For many years now, Andrea Rossi has talked about his goal of building robotized production lines to build E-Cats. His reasoning has been that in order to be competitive he needs to be able to mass produce E-Cats in such large quantities, and so cheaply, that it will discourage competitors from reverse engineering his technology, since it would be too expensive to try to do so.

As we know, there has not yet been any mass production of E-Cats for commercial sale, and it would seem that all E-Cats that have been made for internal testing or demonstration purposes have been custom made by Rossi himself, or with assistance from his associates.

It does sound now, however, that Rossi is at a point where he and his team are focusing on robotic production. Here are a few recent Q&As from the Journal of Nuclear Physics on the subject.

Frank Acland
December 17, 2017 at 3:30 PM
Dear Andrea,

Will the first E-Cat commercial product you plan to present be made by hand, or produced on a robotic mass production line?

Andrea Rossi
December 17, 2017 at 6:20 PM
Frank Acland:
The product will be presented only after we will have initiated the industrial production with the robots.
Warm Regards,

Frank Acland
December 18, 2017 at 9:06 AM
Dear Andrea,

So if I understand correctly:

1. You are working now to develop the first E-Cat industrial product?
2. You are working now to develop the robotic system to make the first E-Cat industrial product?
3. You will only present the product when both 1 and 2 are accomplished?
4. After success with 1 and 2 and 3, you plan to expand the production capability for massive production of E-Cats?

Andrea Rossi
December 18, 2017 at 3:28 PM
Frank Acland:
1- We are working now to start the industrialization of the E-Cat QX for industrial applications
2- yes
3- yes
4- yes
Warm Regards,

Dear Andrea Rossi,

Congratulations on the successful demo in Stockholm. Do you already have a robot that you can program and test manufacturing processes? Once that is perfected it should be easy to replicate and expand to massive manufacturing. Wishing you and your team a Merry Christmas and a successful New Year.

Bernie Morrissey

Andrea Rossi
December 19, 2017 at 4:20 PM
Bernie Morrissey:
Yes, we are working very hard on it.
I badly want to see the massive production start on 2018. Our bsiness plan is very ambitious.
Warm Regards,

Frank Acland
December 19, 2017 at 6:56 PM
Dear Andrea,

I would agree that from the information you have shared, you have a very ambitious business plan.

1. Do you now have the expertise at your disposal to make a sophisticated robotic production line?
2. Is the goal of mass production in 2018 yours alone, or is it something your whole team is working towards?
3. Is it realistic to expect the presentation of the first product in 2018?

Andrea Rossi
December 20, 2017 at 2:42 AM
Frank Acland:
1- I am working on it with specialsists. I have not expertise on this field, I am learning.
2- The 2018 target is shared with our Team and our Partners.
3- It is our ambitious target.
Warm Regards,

As always, it’s not easy to get detailed responses from Rossi, so you have to somewhat specific in questioning to try and get the picture, but from what he is saying here, it sounds like the focus of his team and new partner is now on how to build his products using robotics. He says he is now working with specialists; and in the past he has consulted with ABB regarding robotics, so it makes one wonders if they are still involved since they would certainly be considered robotics specialists. For the time being I doubt that we’ll get much in the way of verification about the things he is discussing here. He admits that getting the robotic production going in 2018 is ambitious, and we won’t know if it has happened until it happens, so again, we are in a state of waiting with the E-Cat.

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UFOs Hit Mainstream News with Revelations about Pentagon Research Program

All of a sudden anomalous technology is front and center in the mainstream news. The New York Times on December 16 published an article about the Pentagon’s $22 million “Advanced Aerospace Threat Identification” program that investigated reports of UFO sightings. The program officially ended in 2012, but actually continued in secrecy led by Pentagon military intelligence official Luiz Elizondo who resigned from the program in October 2017 because of what he thought was excessive secrecy and from internal opposition.

The following video shows Mr. Elizondo being interviewed on CNN by Erin Burnett about his participation in the program, along with some footage of a US Military encounter with an anomalous craft.

In the interview, Elizondo states that there is still a lot that is unknown about some of the observations made in the program, but he says that they have identified some “very, very interesting anomalous type of aircraft, things that don’t any obvous flight surfaces, any obvious forms of propulsion, and maneuvering in ways that include extreme maneuverability, beyond, I would submit, the healthy g-forces of a human or anything biological, hypersonic velocities, low observability, positive lift — again seemingly defying the laws of aerodynamics . . . I will tell you unequivocally that through the observations, scientific methodologies that were applied to look at this phenomenon, that these aircraft are displaying characteristics that are not currently within the US inventory, nor any foreign inventory that we are aware of.”

Former Nevada Senator and Senate Majority leader Harry Reid was a leading force behind the program, and much of the research of the program was carried out by Navada billionaire entrepreneur Robert Bigelow. Bigelow told the New York Times that he considers the United States to be the most backward country in its approach to UFO phenomena: “Our scientists are scared of being ostracized, and our media is scared of the stigma.”

According to the New York Times article, Senator Reid pushed for more secrecy over the program, recommending that it be given a “restricted special access program” designation. Luis Elizondo, on the other hand, after resigning from the Pentagon has joined with a commercial venture, a Public Benefit Corporation called To The Stars Academy of Arts and Science which has the goal of bringing more attention to the subject of transformative technologies that could benefit the human race.

The New York Times story has triggered a host of coverage in the news media across the United States, and around the world. Over recent decades there have been thousands and thousands of reports of unidentified aircraft doing things that could not be possible with known human technologies, but which have been mostly ignored or dismissed by mainstream science and the press — this is the stigma that Robert Bigelow refers to. With more openness, that might change.

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