The following post is reposted from the Electron Clusters Project website, written by “The Director”
There are many names that have been used over the last century to describe the organized torodial structures of electrons that Kenneth R. Shoulders referred to as EVOs (Exotic Vacuum Objects). Regardless if these self organizing clusters are referred to as strange radiation, ectons, high density charge clusters, electron clusters, micro ball lightning, compact toroids, or several other terms, they all represent the same fundamental construct. Perhaps the most well recognized term in mainstream science would be spheromaks.
These toroids composed of electrons and positively charged ions, both extracted from plasma, have been generated up to large sizes (up to a meter), compressed (down to centimeters), accelerated (to fractions of the speed of light), and annihilated (slammed into targets or each other) for multiple purposes: to induce hot fusion reactions, generate emissions such x-rays or neutrons, and to produce beam weapons with extremely high destructive power and ranges.
What’s important to note is that the research by military research facilities and hot fusion startups into the capabilities of spheromaks has typically been focused on large scale versions of these plasmoids. Although the study of these macro-scale entities is certainly a worthwhile endeavor – perhaps having already inspiring the development of exotic inertia-less propulsion drives (do a quick Google search for the Fluxliner Alien Reproduction Vehicle) – very little investigation into the tiny micro-scale varieties of spheromaks has been performed.
However, even if unknown by most individuals knowledgeable about or even “skilled in the art” of LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Reactions), extremely small spheromaks are the likely the nearly universal catalyst of what may or may not be accurately described as, “cold fusion.” Moreover, they have likely been the source of power (either extracting energy from the zero point energy field, inducing nuclear reactions, or both) in a wide variety of so called “free energy” systems. This article, however, will focus primarily on the creation and application of small scale spheromaks (closer in form factor to Shoulders EVOs) to induce an ASTOUNDED state of excess energy production described by the acronym, “Atypical Spheromak Triggering Of Unambiguous Nuclear Derived Energy Discharges.”
An explanation of what constitutes a spheromak should be provided before continuing. Mainstream scientists for decades, at least since the 1980s, have been able to produce large scale (centimeters to multiple meters in diameter) self sustaining, self stabilized toroid flows of electrons and positive ions. These “donuts” of plasma are composed of an outer sheet of electrons flowing in one direction and an interior sheet of heavier positive ions moving in the opposite direction.
The result is a self-contained structure that could be visualized, very roughly, as similar to a toroidal inductor wrapped with copper wire as used in modern electrons. In a spheromak, the fields produced are very similar to those in such a toroidal inducter: a poloidal magnetic field travels circularly in the interior ring of the torus, a secondary toroidal magnetic field (perhaps weaker) travels through the center hole exterior to the surface of the ring, and an electric field of magnetic vector potential travels through the hole as well.
These structures can be created simply by projecting a group, bunch, or beam of electrons – with adequate kinetic energy – through a gaseous medium. The linear motion of the electrons (charged particles) produces a magnetic field that manipulates the geometric positioning of the particles (electrons and positive ions) along the beam. Rings like patterns of moving electrons are formed that could be considered as a series of magnetic rings or “coil turns.” Since magnetic field lines start to focus through the interior of these rings (like in a typical solenoid coil) the ends eventually attempt to connect together, achieving the most electromagnetically stable condition. Applying an externally generated magnetic field (from a permanent magnet or electromagnet) to provide helicity can augment this process. The application of a rotating magnetic field (as used in rotamak configurations) enhances the spheromak formation process to an even greater degree.
Kenneth R. Shoulders, perhaps at the start not familiar with spheromaks, discovered a method of generating the exact same structures, except at a smaller scale with higher mass/energy densities and far greater energy efficiency. Instead of using powerful high-amperage electron beams utilizing heated thermionic emitter cathodes and then applying a series of additional externally generated magnetic fields, he used tiny sharp needle like points and extremely fast high voltage but low current pulses to produce the same geometric forms.
In a typical experiment, a sharp tip of wire serving as a cathode is provided with a short pulse of high voltage. The micro-scale explosion that takes place on the surface of the cathode produces a burst of electrons, positive ions, and metal vapor spray: all moving at high velocities. Pulled right out of this “soup” a spheromak that he described as an “Exotic Vacuum Object” was formed. Starting in 1980, he began a research project with Harold Puthoff (now a sub-contractor for the Advanced Aerospace Threat Identification Program) and Bill Church (of Church’s Fried Chicken). Shoulders quickly learned about the mysterious properties of these plasma structures. For example, they were capable of being accelerated to high speeds – fractions of the speed of light – for very low energy inputs.
Even more interestingly, they were capable of snatching up and carrying along heavy ions for no extra energy cost: somehow their intense electric fields were screening over 99.99% of their mass, inertia, and charge along with the positive ions they carried. This brings up another very important issue: electrons have like charges that should make them repel against each other. However, the electrons composing EVOs are capable of overcoming their mutual repulsion. One speculation is that electron-positron pairs cohered from the zero point energy field appear (due to the intense magnetic and electric fields present) and act as a dielectric to screen the majority of the mutual repulsive electrostatic force. Likewise, the positive ions often en-trained in the EVO (this is not always the case because this class of spheromak can be created in vacuum via pure field emission) may also screen a portion of the electric charge allowing for the electrons to draw closer to each other than would normally be possible.
Through further experimentation, Kenneth Shoulders discovered that the protons or heavy ions accelerated by EVOs could contain extremely high levels of anomalous kinetic energy. Upon striking an anode or target plate, traditional thermonuclear reactions could be produced. Powerful RF emissions, x-rays, and gamma rays were also detected upon EVO impacts, along with a burst of electrons from the destabilization of the structure. In fact, for as long as the EVOs existed, they would emit a continual, ongoing spherical “spray” of electrons with high kinetic energies (typically 2-50keV). The electrons and longitudinal waves from these starbursting electrons could be collected as electrical output. Additionally, upon an EVO impacting an extractor electrode or the anode, additional electrical power could be extracted. In some tests the electrical output collected was thirty times or more the input required to produce the EVO, not factoring the output that was not collected in the form of x-rays, light, heat, and reflected electrons.
Analysis of anode or target plate material showed characteristic track marks, pits, and borrowed holes. These marks were virtually always present and the repeating patterns and geometric forms could be instantly recognized. In the presence of these traces, the proof of EVO impacts, transmuted and isotopically shifted atoms could be found. In particular, even when transmutations were not identified, isotopic shifts (changes in the numbers of neutrons in the same element) were always present.
Moving on from simply using sharpened cathodes, Kenneth Shoulders discovered other ways of producing EVOs or what he apparently did not immediately recognize as micro-scale spheromaks. One method was applying radio frequencies to a low pressure gaseous atmosphere. The streamers that would be formed in the gas would always be lead by an EVO as they moved along. He discovered that these toroids formed more easily in heavier gases (argon, krypton, or xenon) rather than in light gases such as hydrogen. Now, years later, we know this is because spheromaks containing heavier ions have a stronger magnetic field running through the interior of the torus (which can be described as the poloidal magnetic field) which tends to reduce the toroidal magnetic field (running exterior to the body of the torus through the center hole) which magnifies the electric field running through the center hole of the torus. In short, the result is that due to the greater difference in mass between electrons and positive ions, the EVO forms more readily and is more stable. He conjectured that these structures in plasmas formed due to acceleration and bunching of electrons in the ionized conductive environment. But he didn’t stop there. His research soon brought him to the conclusion that EVOs are also formed during fracto-emission of brittle substances (more on this later in this article), the collapse of cavitation bubbles, the breakdown of dielectric electronic components such as capacitors, and many other events. Even the natural phenomenon of ball lightning – not to be mistaken by advanced aerospace vehicles virtually transforming themselves into a macro-scale spheromak – is explained by these toroidal plasmoids.
These ubiquitous structures, found everywhere, fascinated him for years and his research project continued. In 1986, after preparing a number of patent applications involving the creation and utilization of EVOs, he was informed the government was ready to slap a secrecy order on them immediately upon submission. To combat this, he summarized all of his findings in a very rare, privately published book entitled, “EV – A Tale of Discovery” that he distributed to many of his closest friends and associates.
When the government demanded the names and addresses of the individuals he mailed the book to, he simply responded by saying his computer ate the list! For some reason, they relented and allowed the patents to go through, which are now available with a simple patent database search of his name. He continued researching the technology and published a large number of writings, mostly short works of a few to a dozen pages, on his personal website. Since his death, the website has closed but the articles are still available and archived on multiple other websites. They provide a wealth of information, including his ideas on how EVOs were intimately connected to the zero point energy field, low energy nuclear reactions, the technologies utilized by UFOs, and perhaps even the structure of matter and the universe.
Now, since we have an idea of what EVOs are, let’s examine the early cold fusion work of Piantelli and Sergio Focardi utilizing nickel and hydrogen. In the 1990s, these two researchers utilized a variety of different processes to prepare the surface of bulk nickel samples to adsorb (adhere to the surface), dissociate (break apart into individual atoms), and absorb (pull into the interior of the metal lattice) molecular hydrogen. To accomplish this, they used various methods of degreasing the surface of the nickel, removing surface layers of nickel-oxide (a barrier to the desired processes mentioned above), and degassing the nickel to remove trapped oxygen and other contaminants that were present in the lattice. With extreme effort they were successful.
Upon carefully preparing a sample, placing it into a hydrogen environment, and adjusting various parameters such as pressure and temperature, they could measure high degrees of hydrogen absorption. Suddenly producing a rapid fluctuation in either the temperature or pressure would be the next step. This would produce what they described as an “excited state” in which not only excess heat was produced but the emission of radiation and charged particles. Please note that for the quantity of excess heat produced, the amount of radiation emitted was minuscule. If traditional thermonuclear fusion reactions were responsible, they would have both been irradiated to the point of death, repeatedly. But they were fine and experienced no ill effects from the relatively small, easily shielded quantities of emissions that accompanied the high magnitude of excess heat. The active fuel layer in these experiments was very thin: only a tiny quantity of the bulk nickel could be generating the heat. Nevertheless, excess heat in the range of a couple hundred watts at a coefficient of performance (meaning energy input vs. energy output) of around two to three was achieved: very good but not ASTOUNDING.
Then, a few years later, after the testing above had been completed, Andrea Rossi started his work into nickel-hydrogen cold fusion reactions. His device, called the Energy Catalyzer or E-Cat for short, in many tests seemingly produced far higher levels of output. Before disclosing the existence of his technology publicly, he asked Sergio Focardi to examine his systems, measure the inputs and outputs, check his methodologies, run the numbers, and either confirm or deny his findings. The massive excess heat – kilowatts of output with COPs in the hundreds – stunned Sergio Focardi who confirmed Andrea Rossi’s findings. The two then began collaborating together. Soon, Rossi’s blog, The Journal of Nuclear Physics, opened, and Andrea Rossi openly disclosed his findings with the world – while keeping the nature of his “catalysts” and several important industrial secrets to himself.
One of the first revelations about Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat technology to be disclosed is his usage of nickel powder with a higher surface area that Focardi and Piantelli’s bulk rod, wire, or bar. The surface area was also enhanced due to the specific type of nickel powder, which was later learned to be carbonyl nickel powder. The particles of carbonyl nickel are covered with spikes and surface protrusions. Obviously, the first benefit here is a far larger potential surface area to allow for a greater total quantity of hydrogen absorption. More hydrogen absorption would produce a denser and deeper layer of “nickel-hydride” near the surface which, due to its brittle nature, would be susceptible to fracto-emission upon breakage or fracturing. However, simply increasing the surface area wasn’t enough; Andrea Rossi obviously had many more optimizations at his disposal.
The talk going around the web for a few years now leads to the obvious conclusion that he utilized palladium, in conjunction with nickel, in his earliest systems. There is a very good reason for the usage of this element: it adsorbs, dissociates, and absorbs hydrogen extremely rapidly. Palladium can almost be considered a sponge for hydrogen. However, it has another very useful purpose which is acting as a reverse spillover catalyst when applied in small particle sizes over another metal. Nano-particles of palladium covering a larger nickel particle (perhaps one micron in size) would act as a catalyst and split the molecular hydrogen into atomic hydrogen.
The individual hydrogen atoms would then “spillover” onto the nickel to be absorbed (skipping the energy intensive adsorption and dissociation steps). By using such a catalyst, the development of a thin layer of nickel-hydride could be accelerated. The small nickel particle size combined with the catalytic action of palladium nano-islands scattered on the surface would allow for a high degree of embrittlement. This was enough to boost the excess heat output in early E-Cats far beyond what Focardi and Piantelli achieved. The fracturing of the highly embrittled layer produced a truly ASTOUNDED state that was unambiguous in his successful tests. But Andrea Rossi, constantly attempting to improve his technology, didn’t stop there.
By the time he performed his first public demonstration or shortly thereafter, I expect that he was no longer using palladium. Instead, he was using other methods to both, sometimes perhaps simultaneously, bombard his fuel with atomic hydrogen and produce spheromaks inside of his reactors to interact with his fuel. One simple method would be to have used a very hot tungsten wire, perhaps thoriated to reduce the work function, to both produce atomic hydrogen and emit electrons (some of which could form spheromaks). Since he’s admitted to using tungsten for certain applications in some of his reactors, this is certainly plausible. Yet another method of atomic hydrogen and EVO generation he has admitted to is the use of a radio frequency generator that would ionize the gaseous interior of his reactor cavity. Again, both atomic hydrogen and spheromaks would be generated. Upon a spheromak striking the embrittled fuel, fracto-emission would produce even more electrons that could form compact toroidal structures. Many cycles of fracto-emission could be produced that could result in a self sustaining mode of operation, perhaps assisted by small, continual RF input.
At some point, Andrea Rossi started using lithium, in various forms such as LiH (lithium hydride) and LiAlH4 (lithium aluminum hydride) as fuel additives mixed in with the nickel. This eliminated the need for a hydrogen tank, but it also opened the door to several other beneficial effects. For starters, lithium aluminum hydride and lithium hydride emit atomic hydrogen when they decompose. So, for a brief time before the gas recombines, the nickel in the reactor will be exposed to an “easy to absorb” form of hydrogen. This recombination process can take place quickly; perhaps the reason for ramping up the temperature of an E-Cat slowly (gradually letting out a little atomic hydrogen at a time) or cycling the lithium and hydrogen between the solid and gaseous forms. Eventually, after a sufficient quantity of hydrogen has been absorbed into the nickel, a sudden high rate change of temperature can induce fracto-emission resulting in EVO generation, nuclear reactions, and excess heat.
An additional benefit of lithium is that when applied to a metal, it lowers the “work function” or the barrier that inhibits electrons from being emitted from the metal into the environment. Simply having some of the nickel covered with a layer of lithium might augment EVO production. But Andrea Rossi thought of an even better additive, which by itself or especially doped with lithium or another appropriate agent such as boron, could lower the work function even further: nano-diamonds.
Micro or nano-scale diamonds doped with lithium, boron, or other appropriate agents can be bonded to metals such as nickel and serve as very effective electron emitters. They are actually used in cathode electron beam generators in a variety of industries. In addition to the internally generated spheromaks produced by fracto-emission, these nano-diamonds when stimulated electromagnetically, electrically, or thermionically (by heat) could project EVOs that would induce nuclear reactions. One way in which they could produce nuclear reactions would be picking up protons and accelerating them – via the anomalous acceleration effect – into the metal lattice at energy levels capable of producing classical thermonuclear fusion either with nickel or lithium atoms. Yet another would be for them to disguise themselves as “heavy electrons” (in a manner similar to muon catalyzed fusion), slip through the electron shells of various nearby materials, and induce nuclear reactions. Additionally, EVO strikes produce neutrons which could produce energy via isotopic shifting. There are also other mechanisms that have been speculated that would generate excess heat – resulting in an ASTOUNDED state.
Andrea Rossi has developed a potentially revolutionary, if further verified, technology called the E-Cat QX. What we know for a fact is that it utilizes lithium-hydrogen plasma in the very narrow diameter channel (a fraction of a millimeter wide and only a few millimeters long) of a quartz tube between two nickel electrodes. The test results – which are promising but still need reproduction by a third party – seem to indicate massive excess heat production for a tiny quantity of input. Recently, he performed a public demonstration in Sweden and the video is available on YouTube. After triggering with a high voltage DC impulse and then applying additional series of smaller amplitude frequencies, the device was able to heat up a flow of water, allegedly producing over twenty watts of thermal power (probably much more due to the calculations being very conservative) for an average input that was far less than a watt, equaling a COP in the hundreds.
I highly suspect that the E-Cat QX functions in a very similar manner to a conventional “hot fusion” spheromak generator with three major differences: a much smaller overall size, a different configuration, and the usage of extremely low work function lithium doped nano-diamonds on the nickel cathodes. Since we know he used nano-diamonds in other configurations of devices, it makes perfect sense he is using them on the electrodes of this device; otherwise, he’d need much higher voltages to generate the EVO generating discharges. With these additives on his cathode, he is able to create potentially millions of tiny nano to micro scale spheromaks with every small fluctuation of his voltage. After the first high voltage impulse ionizes the channel, establishing a condition of “abnormal glow discharge” the production of spheromaks takes place in a very efficient manner. In fact, most of the energy required for their generation likely comes from electron-positron pairs being cohered from the zero point energy field. This makes his device not only nuclear but also something even more profound and revolutionary.
He’s also likely utilizing one or more permanent magnets to either enhance the formation of the EVOs (therefore reducing the energy cost to create them) and potentially trap them in a “magnetic mirror” configuration. A well known scientific fact is that a charged particle will move away from a region of dense magnetic field lines to a zone of lower density. So, for example, a permanent magnet placed behind the cathode would push electrons off the surface towards the anode, while also providing the helicity needed for their organization into spheromaks. If in addition another magnet was placed on the opposite end behind the anode, there would exist two regions on either side of the channel with a higher density of magnetic field lines. The spheromaks created would cluster in the center of the very narrow channel in the region of lowest field density. They might exist there as individual entities or combine into a larger, yet still tiny, spheromak. Upon additional discharges, as in some hot fusion spheromak fusion arrangements, the toroids of electrons would collide in the center region. When this happens, the conditons may exist for fusion reactions between the hydrogen and lithium ions, yielding alpha particles (helium nuclei consisting of two protons) that would loose their kinetic energy upon collision with other molecules and produce heat. Other emissions may also take place that could help keep the channel ionized.
I suspect the above configuration is likely for a couple of reasons. First, I suspect he wants to protect the surface of his nickel electrodes, which may be covered with lithium doped nano-diamonds. If they were to reach temperatures anywhere close to those in the center of the tube, the diamonds would degrade and the device would stop functioning at such a low voltage. So, it may be ideal to keep the nuclear reactions taking place near the center of the quartz tube, away from the electrodes. However, there may be a mode of operation in which the electrodes play a more important role, especially if permanent magnets are not used to produce a trapping zone. Kenneth Shoulders, apparently never having tested very low work function nano-diamond emitters, claimed that he could produce more electric power from an EVO strike on his cathode than was required to produce the electron cluster to begin with. My guess is that with Rossi’s setup and specifically selected emitters, the electrical output from EVO strikes on the anode could soar! Both the power out in watts and the efficiency of the process (COP) could be far higher than in any of Kenneth Shoulders experiments. Interestingly, the power produced may be in the form of “cold electricity” as described by a series of “free energy” pioneers that have used vaguely similar configurations that would likely produce huge quantities of EVOs from an abnormal glow discharge. This “cold electricity” does not behave in the exact same manner as ordinary electricity (it seemingly has super conductive properties and doesn’t seem to be effected at all by back EMF). If Andrea Rossi hasn’t learned how to tame this form of energy, this might be an explanation for the anomalous heating in his power supply which consumes around sixty watts of active cooling. Potentially, this form of output, once fully understood, could offer some unique advantages.
From looking at the principles at work in Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat reactors, we can gain an understanding of the protocols and techniques that allow for an ASTOUNDED state to be created. However, spheromaks (again, referred to by many different names) are also involved in a multitude of other exotic technologies. One example is ultra high efficiency, apparently overunity, HHO or “Brown’s Gas” systems. Instead of using a high current and an electrolyte to produce an apparently anomalous quantity of gas compared to the power ran through the cell, ordinary water can be used with small gaps between plates or tubes – if the electrodes are conditioned to be covered with millions of tiny micro-needles! When powered with a high frequencies at appropriate voltages, these micro-needles emit discharges (obviously a form of spheromak) that generates copious quantities of HHO with anomalous properties. Moreover, cold fusion and heat production systems utilizing ultrasound or other methods of producing imploding cavitation bubbles emit spheromaks. Nikola Tesla, E.V. Gray, Moray, and a host of other researchers have been using — even sometimes if unaware — spheromaks to extract energy from the vacuum and produce nuclear reactions.
With the concepts of what’s required to achieve an ASTOUNDED state in our minds, let’s go over a quick review of the critical concepts to producing a powerful LENR effect. These guidelines will be more oriented towards Andrea Rossi’s powder based systems than the E-Cat QX, but the mechanisms at play in all of his systems are very tightly linked.
A) Utilize high surface nickel powder or very thin wire with spike covered, roughened surfaces. This will allow for more fuel material to be involved in the reactions. Carbonyl nickel is an acceptable choice. To roughen a wire or plate, sputtering with argon in a corona discharge could work.
B) Clean and degas your nickel to remove surface oxides and trapped interior gases. This is important because oxides are a barrier to hydrogen uptake and interior gases take up space in the lattice where you want the hydrogen to go.
C) Utilize some method of dissociating atomic hydrogen and embedding protons into your fuel to create a metal hydride layer: coatings of palladium nano-particles acting as spillover catalysts, hot tungsten wires, radio frequency generators, high voltage AC/DC glow discharge, release of atomic hydrogen from LiH or LiAlH4, cycles of sputtering and ion bombardment in a hydrogen corona discharge, high frequency harmonics applied to resistor heating elements, and a range of other techniques. Simply putting clean nickel into a hydrogen environment is not enough. The fuel must be bombarded with atomic hydrogen in one way or another. This creates the critical nickel-hydride layer that’s susceptible to fracto-emission.
D) Create EVOs using one of a number of different methods and have them interact with your fuel! There’s a lot of overlap with letter “C” above, but I’d especially suggest the usage of radio frequencies generators (perhaps designing your whole system as a conical resonator to achieve the ionized plasma for a lower input power), spark gaps between electrodes, direct current discharges through the fuel, and the usage of low work function elements (such as lithium) to further optimize very low work function emitters (like nano-diamonds). There are very specific processes for doping nano-diamonds with lithium or other elements in the patent literature. To be blunt, it doesn’t look as easy as just mixing everything together in a glove box and filling a reactor tube. But if properly doped and bonded with a secure contact to the nickel surface, nano-diamonds can become copious emitters of spheromaks.
E) Experiment with magnetic fields to augment and accelerate the organization of EVOs from free electrons. Try permanent magnets producing field lines cutting across your reactor in different directions: the added helicity from the “swirl” of the vector potential around the field line can help the electrons structures form strings of loops and then reconnect their ends. In particular, a three (or even four) phase solenoid or heating element wound around a reactor could not only produce a magnetic field but a twisting (rotating) magnetic field as in a mainstream “rotamak.” This could augment enhance EVO production even further.
How to enhance LENR reactions doesn’t have to be mysterious anymore. I’m not saying that there isn’t a lot of details about the physics we don’t understand, but I think with the principles in this article we can push forward to build working, powerful systems that produce ASTOUNDED states of excess heat production. Inducing LENR with spheromaks will turn “hot fusion” research programs upside down; because individuals such as Andrea Rossi will have approached the task from the opposite direction. Instead of going for large spheromaks in giant systems, he utilized smart and efficient techniques to produce copious itty bitty electron clusters.
Once this low hanging fruit is proven as valid to the world, or possibly even before, other applications of these compact toroids may be revealed. For example, the anomalous craft flying in our skies, the majority of which are likely human built craft, could be revealed to the world. I’ll be looking forward to hearing all the details about how their macro-spheromak propulsion drives work. Actually, I’ll be even more interested in learning how the drives in recovered extraterrestrial space craft worked! Extracting unlimited energy from the vacuum, screening mass, nullifying inertia, allowing for faster than light speeds (actually changing the speed of light in the local environment), spheromak technologies can open up the galaxy to mankind!