3 kW Heat Burst Reported in Experiment Using Copper, Nickel, Zirconia and Hydrogen Gas

Thanks to Jed Rothwell for posting a link on the vortex-l mailing list of a paper published on the Researchgate website from a group of Japanese researchers at Kobe University using a Copper, Nickel, Zirconia mixture in Hydrogen gas, with heat applied.

The article is: “Anomalous Heat Burst by CNZ7 Sample and H-Gas” by Yokose, Toyoshi & Takahashi, Akito & Takahashi, Koh & Furuyama, Yuichi. (2018). The paper will be presented at the JCF19 Meeting, Nov. 9-10, 2018, Iwate University, Morioka, Japan

From the abstract:

“Repeatability of anomalous heat effect (AHE) by the interaction of nano-composite CNZ(Cu1Ni7/zirconia) sample1,2, and H-gas at 200- 300 degree C RC (reaction chamber) condition was studied.In this paper, we report a large heat burst (ca.130 Wpeak by oil-flow calorimetry) event by CNZ7sample(ca. 1kg, Cu1Ni7/Zirconia) and H-gas interaction under elevated temperature.”

The full text can be read at this link.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328547673_Anomalous_Heat_Burst_by_CNZ7_Sample_and_H-Gas

Low Energy Nuclear Reactions – Is the mechanism simple electro magnetic resonance? (Lamaan Ball)

The following article has been submitted by Lamaan Ball

Low Energy Nuclear Reactions – Is the mechanism simple electro magnetic resonance?

For some years now I have followed the claims of Cold Fusion given by Pons and Fleischmann. As a student of physics, this potential source of energy was exciting and continues to be so. It seems to most that this was disproved many years ago, but to those paying attention, there have been many efforts to reproduce the effects seen and some claim quite a lot of success.

The closest to getting a commercial product seems to be Andrea Rossi, and some of his work has been reproduced. Different theories try to explain how this works. Here I will attempt to explain how I think it happens. I will try to keep the explanation simple enough for anyone to understand.

When a flute player blows across the hole, waves are formed inside the flute of air pressure dependent on the length of the flute. The frequency depends on the dimensions of the space it bounces around and whether or not a note comes out depends on blowing fast enough to overcome the loss of energy of the sound escaping. In this action we turn white noise (blowing) into very specific frequencies of sound. This is the process of resonance.

Similar mechanisms work with other kinds of waves. In particular, electric fields in conducting materials could be made to resonate. If we take a conducting stick of metal and subject it to an electric or magnetic field pulse, a wave will bounce back and forth in the metal travelling at or close to the speed of light. Repeating the pulses at a rate before this wave decays will produce a ‘ringing’ of the metal at its resonant frequencies determined by its dimensions. For example, a high frequency electro-magnetic field pulsing on a metal rod of about 12 cm, should produce electro-magnetic field waves inside the metal of a similar length as a microwave oven. This could be used to provide a highly efficient way to convert water into hydrogen and oxygen gasses. It is not free energy in this instance but it might be a very efficient way to store energy as hydrogen and oxygen gasses that when recombined could power a car.

This is not nuclear though. In Andrea Rossi’s patents the key ingredients are a mixture of nickel and lithium hydrides (to read more see for example http://e-catworld.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Parkhomovetal.pdf)

What appears to be happening are isotope changes, with neutrons migrating from lithium into nickel. To free a lithium neutron would take energy at least equal to the change in binding energy for a lithium atom to change from Li7 to Li6, Li7 has more binding energy of neutrons than Li6. Working out how much energy is needed to free a neutron will give us the energy of a photon needed to do it. The photon would come from a resonating electro-magnetic wave. Knowing the photon energy will tell us its frequency. This will tell us the size of the distance needed for resonances. Skip the next paragraph if you want to avoid the mathematics.

Li7 has a binding energy per nucleon of 5.60629 MeV giving it a total binding energy of 39.244037MeV. Li6 has a binding energy per nucleon of 5.332345Mev giving it a total binding energy of 31.99407Mev. If we want a reaction of Li7 + gamma -> Li6 + free neutron, then the photon (gamma) must provide the energy difference. This is 39.244037MeV – 31.99407Mev = 7.249967MeV. This gives us the frequency by E=hf for a photon. So the energy in Joules (SI units) is E=7.249967MeV x 1.60E-13J/MeV = 1.16E-12 Joules, which give us f=1.16E-12/6.63E-34 = 1.75E+21Hz. To get the resonant distance needed for such a photon, we can say that the speed of the wave is close to the speed of light. The time of one oscillation will give us a distance for a resonance mode. This is then 1/f = 5.70E-22 seconds. How far does light travel in this time? d=ct where d is distance and c is the speed of light and t is time. This gives us a distance of 3E+8 x 5.7E-22 = 1.7E-13 metres.

This distance is somewhere between the typical size of atoms at about 1E-10 metres and atomic nuclei at about 1E-15 metres. So what is the resonance we could get? It turns out that when atoms form ionic crystals the electron from one atom is essentially moved to the other atom making it into a cation. This gives us what is called an ionic atom radius. For hydrogen that has only one electron, when it is bound in a solid such as a hydride its size is 1.2E-12 metres which is in spitting distance of our distance needed for a resonance. Resonances over this distance could be built up with electro-magnetic noise and regular electro-magnetic pulses to stop their decay like blowing on a flute produces a note. In fact it produces many notes. The resonant frequencies are all the multiples of half a wavelength so although the main energy of the resonant waves has frequency determined by half the distance, other frequencies are produced for waves at fractions of the length of the resonant distances such as 1/2 the distance, 1/4 the distance, 1/8 the distance. A resonance at 1/8th the ionic hydrogen size would be just about right size to create photons that could release neutrons from Li7.

If this slow neutron was absorbed by Ni58 the binding energy it would gain is 59 x 8.73657 – 58 x 8.732041  = 8.999Mev meaning for each atom isotope transformation by this mechanism we have a gain of energy

Li7 + Ni58 => Li6 + Ni59 + 1.75 MeV

For gram of fuel this yields approx.  (6.02214179E+23)/65 x 1.75 x 1.16E-12MeV/J = 18,807,612,052J/g which is 18TJ/Kg this compares to an energy density of diesel fuel of 48 MJ/Kg

This means that a teaspoon of fuel could run your car for a year.

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No Mystery: The E-Cat QX Explained By Lost Technologies (‘The Director’)

The following post has been submitted by ‘The Director’

No Mystery: The E-Cat QX Explained By Lost Technologies

Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat QX technology is a fascinating feline that combines multiple physical phenomena to produce both thermal and electrical output power. Allegedly producing kilowatts or more power at ultra high input-to-output ratios, the emergence of this technology could be truly paradigm shattering – with far reaching consequences that could impact all aspects of human civilization. If verified to perform as claimed, its introduction could be the catalyst that accelerates our species towards a technologically advanced state beyond the dreams of current science fiction writers. This document is an effort to describe and share the author’s best guess as to many details of the device. Many elements may be missing and some could be flat out wrong. But after researching a list of potentially related technologies including Paulo Correa’s PAGD generator, Alexander Chernetsky’s “self generating discharge” tube, Randell Mills’ hydrino, Leif Holmlid’s Ultra Dense Hydrogen theories, Kenneth R. Shoulders’ discovery of EVOs, and several others including information about the E-Cat QX, the author believes the information in this document is worthy of consideration.

Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat QX/SK seems to be constructed of two large electrodes (alleged to be constituted of nickel) with rounded faces positioned within a cylinder of what may be a form of fused quartz or other heat resistant material. To insure the QX remains compliant with his granted patent application, Rossi maintains that it also utilizes lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4). Hence, a Ni-LiAlH4 combination. Likely, only a small quantity is utilized and subsequently vaporized by the high temperature plasma, creating a low pressure atmosphere within the cylinder. After an initial higher voltage impulse at startup, pulsed DC voltage is applied at around one hundred kilohertz. The claimed result is both thermal power being generated and electrical impulses that are transmitted back to the power supply – resulting in the need for a power hungry cooling system to keep the temperature of the electronic control system within operational tolerances.

For a description of the Stockholm demonstration and further information about what was learned about the QX, you can visit Mats Lewan’s website: https://animpossibleinvention.com/2017/11/26/reflections-on-the-nov-24-e-cat-qx-demo-in-stockholm/

Many aspects of the QX resemble other alternative energy technologies from decades past, including those of Chernetsky and Correa. Both of their systems utilized electrical discharges in a gaseous environment to produce a plasma resulting in excess power output: although they were both focused on electrical power generation.

An initial thought that comes to mind is that like these two systems, the electrodes of the QX likely produce surface protrusions perhaps appropriately described as similar to Taylor cones. These spike- like protrusions resulting from series of higher powered initial discharges produced an intense electric field amplification effect that reached a maximum potential at the sharp tip. If damaged or eroded away, the output of the PAGD (Correa) and Self Generating Discharge tube (Chernetsky) would fall down back to unity — a COP of 1.

Also, in a similar manner to these two systems, the author conjectures that the QX operates within the “abnormal glow discharge” zone of a plasma discharge which can be described as a “negative resistance” region at which current climbs while voltage drops. This is the area that the magic happens. If exceeded, the negative resistance effect will end, ordinary electrical resistance will appear, and quickly an “arc discharge” will form between the cathode and anode. Such an arc discharge is undesirable for multiple reasons: not only because it’s not in the proper “zone” for effects that will be subsequently described in this essay but also because the erosion rate of the cathode will skyrocket, destroying the Taylor cone.

Many design considerations need to be considered to reduce the chance of an arc discharge forming. Perhaps the most obvious consideration is the use of a resistor in the circuit of the power supply to restrict the current from reaching what would trigger an arc discharge. Additionally, a computerized control system should be utilized to control voltage and amperage levels. Yet another consideration is the choice of cathode material. Nickel may not be optimal. According to the patents of the Correas, the work function of materials should be considered. This is especially true with the E-Cat if you consider that the nickel electrodes – if they are solid nickel – are reasonably good thermionic emitters. At high temperatures, nickel electrodes will spew out electrons in a manner that may not be easily controlled, allowing for arc discharges and electrode erosion. This is due to its relatively low work function that permits electrons to escape its surface.

Examining the work functions of common metals, Platinum has a higher work function and is described in scientific literature as being a very poor thermionic emitter material, especially when not used in combination with dopants. Since Andrea Rossi has experience using platinum, and we know he has access to the material – purchasing a quantity from Johnson Matthey – he may use the metal to reduce the chance of unwanted thermionic emission. As not to eliminate nickel from the device, to maximize adherence to his “Fluid Heater” patent, it’s possible that the electrodes are only coated with platinum. This would not be a bad idea for yet another reason when considering the high temperatures within the QX. The melting point of platinum is 1,768C compared to 1,455C. A difference of a little over 300 degrees may not seem like a lot but could be critical in a hostile environment such as the plasma atmosphere of the QX.

The QX is also alleged to operate at very low voltages, below what would normally allow for a plasma column between two electrodes to exist. Interestingly, the interaction of atomic hydrogen and “atomic lithium” is alleged to induce a catalytic reaction according to Randell Mills of Brilliant Light Power. Mills claims that when atomic hydrogen contacts atomic lithium (in addition to a range of other catalytic elements) the electron orbit of the hydrogen atom shrinks to a fractional state. Regardless of whether whether you accept that an electron can orbit a proton below the ground state, Mills provides evidence of something fundamentally interesting occurring: a release of energy that produces “hot” hydrogen species, free electrons, and the creation of what he describes as a “resonant transfer plasma.” This resonant transfer plasma, according to Mills’ claims, can even be produced when a hot tungsten rod is exposed to a gaseous atmosphere of atomic hydrogen and one or more of a list of catalysts. In this case, the release of energy will create ionic species in the vicinity of the tungsten which creates a glow that’s visible to the naked eye. Moreover, Mills claims that the same reaction can allow for a plasma to be formed between two electrodes at between 1 and 2 volts per centimeter of distance between cathode and anode. This is a huge reduction that’s quite frankly impossible unless some little understood phenomena is taking place. Interestingly, it could explain the low operating voltage of the Quark. According to Mills’ theory and the experimental results of third parties, lithium is a catalyst for the generation of such a transfer resonant plasma! Since the QX utilizes lithium and hydrogen this effect should be present if this phenomena exists: which it seems to be.

This does not necessarily mean that hydrinos, exactly as described in Randell Mills patents and papers, are being formed. I think it likely means that the elements in the E-Cat and the devices of Black Light Power do convert hydrogen into another form while releasing a specific quanta of energy. However, very interestingly, before Randell Mills distanced himself from Cold Fusion (LENR), he speculated in two of his early patents that hydrinos could catalyze nuclear reactions. In this theory, the Coulomb barrier of the hydrino was weakened or reduced, so that hydrinos could more closely approach the nucleus of other atoms — dramatically increasing the probability of inducing nuclear reactions. To be fair, there are probably a dozen other theories about hydrogen atoms – sometimes with additional electrons – being converted into another form that could act as a catalyst for LENR. Whose to say which one is correct; the author of this paper does not wish to be bound by any one theory.

Before moving on, it should be noted that various noble gases such as helium and argon are also catalysts according to the theory of Randell Mills and have been confirmed by third parties. There has been some controversy on the internet about the color of the plasma produced in the QX. Apparently, certain individuals allege that it may have changed. A good reason for this could be that Andrea Rossi has performed tests with mixtures of various gaseous additives to enhance the basic LiAlH4 formula that falls under the Fluid Heater patent.

As mentioned previously, the system is pulsed with DC at around 100 khz – at least during the Stockholm demonstration. When a DC pulse is applied, the electric field amplification effect at the tip of the cathode ionizes the environment even further, releasing an “electron bunch” or a conglomeration of electrons. This could be considered an electric current. And as we know, an electric current produces a magnetic field. This changing magnetic field due to the Lorentz force can induce helical motion of the charged particles: the electrons, protons, noble gas ions, and lithium ions. These charged particles can form curly filaments that could be conceptualized as stretched out slinky – a common toy from a previous age. Under the proper electromagnetic conditions, the ends of these filaments can come together and produce toroidal loops. Negatively charged electrons would be moving along the outside of these “donut” shaped objects (which could be compared to a typical toroidal inductor with copper wire wrapped around the exterior) and positive ions would be moving within the body.

On the small scale, the objects that result could be described as micro-ball lightning or Kenneth R. Shoulders “Exotic Vacuum Objects” (EVOs). Moving upwards, such torodial plasmoids (a term coined by Bostic) could be considered as macro-scale spheromaks. Regardless of which term is used, they are self-organizing plasma structures. The effect that created them is the magnetic “pinch” effect which seems to be a phenomena that can take place on many different scales: nano, micro, and macro. But these structures may not only exist individually but could also be visualized as Russian nesting dolls: a larger plasmoid torus could contain or, perhaps, decompose and release a multitude of smaller structures.

Alexander Chernetsky’s Self Generating Discharge plasma tube was stated to also utilize the magnetic pinch effect. Considering only one of several of his devices, a transparent tube several inches in diameter and perhaps four or more feet long, when a critical current density was achieved, the pinch effect would transform his plasma into divided “cycloid” segments. When these circular rings appeared, the excess electrical input would show up.

Compared to Chernetsky or Correa’s devices, the QX is tiny, with a much smaller plasma channel. However, the principle of operation seems to be similar among all these devices. Andrea Rossi’s control box increases the voltage in a very abrupt manner (with a high rate of dv/dt) at a high rate of change. Since the device seems to be experiencing a negative resistance in the abnormal glow discharge zone, the rate of current change will be even greater – because the resistance falls as voltage increases. This sudden, non-equilibrium jolt pushes electrons suddenly and produces a powerful magnetic field: hence, a strong Lorentz force is felt by all charged ions. Perhaps aided by the presence of an externally applied magnetic field (more on this soon), a toroidal plasma vortex is formed (also known as a toroidal pinch).

From here energy producing effects start to occur. First, the plasma vortex or spheromak formed starts to cohere the zero point energy field and utilize electron-positron pairs from the vacuum to produce a powerful electric field — that accelerates electrons and sends a surge of power straight back to the power supply! Thus, the initial DC pulse into the QX results in two individual pulses: a forward pulse and a back pulse.

Here are some descriptions of this process in regards to the aforementioned systems of Chernetsky and Correa:

About the Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge Generator of Paulo Correa from “Power from Autoelectronic Emissions by P.N. Correa and A.N. Correa — http://www.aetherometry.com/Labofex_Plasma_Physics/Archive/PwrfromAEemissions.html

“In accordance with Aspden’s treatment of the Law of electrodynamics (23, 56, 95, 97), our invention of the XS NRG Power Generation System is made possible by the engraftment of the extraordinarily large PAGD reaction forces transduced by distinct plasma flows, as a surplus of electric energy in closed charge systems. To borrow the language of Prigogine, these apparently closed systems give rise to self-organizing structures that are in fact transiently open physical systems, when they elicit anomalous reaction forces under specific conditions of performance. It is as if, through the auto-electronic metal/plasma interaction and the self-extinguishing characteristic of the PAGD regime, electrical power is directly squeezed out of metal ‘in vacuo’, by virtue of a pulsatory interaction with the polarized ‘vacuum’ field energy.”

 

About Chernetsky’s Self Generating Discharge tube from “Vacuum Energy: A Breakthrough” by Andrei Samokhin — http://www.keelynet.com/energy/plasmafe.txt

“This is how Chernetsky explains his miraculous experiment: ‘The self-generating discharge emerges when the discharge current reaches a definite criticaldensity, when the magnetic fields they create ensure magnetization of plasma electrons and they begin to perform MOSTLY CYCLOID movements.  The interaction of currents with their magnetic fields forces the electrons to deviate to the CYLINDER-SHAPED discharge axis and the electrical field emerges.  It has proved to ‘switch on’ the physical vacuum: in this field the vacuum is polarized and consequently the virtual pairs begin to move in a definite direction, instead of chaotically.

“The virtual positrons accelerate plasma electrons, giving them part of their energy.  The current in the circuit builds up and additional energy is discharged on the resistor switched into the discharge circuit.  Clearly, only part of the tremendous vacuum energy is extracted.’”

 

From ‘Self-generating Electrical Discharge” by Alexander V. Frolov —

http://www.faraday.ru/chernetsky.pdf

“Technical aspects of experimental SGD device were not detailed by Chernetsky in [1] but he explained the ways to get SGD. By his definition, self-generating discharge is special type of electrical arc that can be created at certain value of density of discharge current. Since voltampere diagram of any arc consist of decreasing and increasing part, Chernetsky noted two ways for self-sustaining electrical oscillations: at first, small current way on the decreasing part of the diagram when the resistance of the arc is negative, and at second, great current way on the increasing part of the diagram when the arc plasma electrons are interacting with strong magnetic field of plasma (so called pinch-effect was found by Chernetsky in 1960th). First way seems me as most simple and effective way and there were produced some simple experiments to prove it [8]. But Alexander V. Chernetsky used the second way to get the self-sustaining oscillation in plasma. He noted: the pinch-effect produce the radial electrical field in the arc and corresponding radial magnetic field. In development of his explanation let me note: since the primary source create axial movement of changed particles between electrodes, the reason of radial separation and additional energy of the plasma particles is well-known Lorenz force. Positive feedback in this circuit is the next: pinch-effect compress the plasma in radial direction, then radial electromagnetic field interact with axially moving particles of plasma to increase radial separation, so the energy of plasma particles is increasing up to change of electrodes polarity that stop the arc process. The change is produced by plasma particle and the source is direct current source only. The changes of electrodes polarity are possible only if the energy of the particle is increased in process of the movement in the arc gap between electrodes. Capacity and inductive parameters of experimental device define the resonance frequency of the oscillations. Chernetsky tested 3MHz oscillations and duration of pulses was about 30 microseconds. He used voltage 600VDC (direct current source). The plasma was created in hydrogen at pressure about 0.1 T.”

Even more interesting, here is a description of the PAGD that could very well apply to the QX. from “Power from Autoelectronic Emissions by P.N. Correa and A.N. Correa — http://www.aetherometry.com/Labofex_Plasma_Physics/Archive/PwrfromAEemissions.html

“Given the self-pulsed characteristics of the autogenous PAGD regime, the pulse generator effectively functions as a simple DC inverter producing quasi regular large discontinuous “AC” pulses that, once filtered from the associated DC signal, can be directly utilized to power and control electromagnetic motors, relays and transformer circuits. This line of investigation culminated in the patented design of basic PAGD motor and other inverter circuits (91-92). This was the origin of the Labofex Motor Drive (LMD) which utilizes innovative motor principles based upon a total control of the variables affecting PAGD production (applied voltage, applied current, residual gas nature, pressure, electrode area, reactive gap distance, electrode geometry, cathode work-function, etc) (91-92). Similar applications would soon follow for transmission of the generated impulses across space, the design of DC inverters and of polyphasic systems (91-92).”

 

It seems to the author that by some mechanism  energy from the vacuum is being tapped by these systems, and the same is likely true for the QX. However, that’s not the end of the story. The “pinch” effect is also a mechanism that can induce nuclear reactions by compressing atoms together. If there is a form of hydrogen – perhaps configured to seem more neutron-like with a reduced charge – capable of inducing nuclear reactions with other atoms through weak interactions, then perhaps the pinch effect would be even more effective at inducing nuclear reactions. In this case, most likely, between hydrogen (modified in some manner) and lithium (or perhaps aluminum or even other hydrogen atoms). The effect would be that at every pulse of DC input, there would not only be energy extracted from the vacuum but nuclear reactions releasing MeVs of energy. This energy could be what is producing the tremendous heat in the QX. However, it could also serve to further ionize the gas in the interior of the reactor reducing the required constant input voltage.

In reality, there could be three sources of energy being utilized in the QX:

  1. The energy that’s released when hydrogen is transformed to another state that’s more susceptible to undergoing nuclear reactions (regardless if this means it has transformed into Mills’ hydrino or not). This is expected to be in the range of hundreds of keV per transformation.
  2. The energy that’s extracted from the vacuum that produces a powerful electric field that can burn out the power supply as has happened with both Correa’s and Chernetsky’s devices. With each DC pulse there are two pulses of output. One output push goes in the expected direction and the other slams back into the power supply.
  3. The energy from the nuclear reactions that take place during the pinches. This is probably where most of the energy comes from.

This system is complex enough that Rossi has many parameters to play around with, such as tuning the pulsing frequency to hit a resonance. Most likely, there’s a frequency range that’s best for different gaps between electrodes, different elemental compositions of the plasma, and different electrode geometries. Also, although there’s a self generating magnetic field produced by the discharge itself that’s capable of organizing the ions into vortexes, external magnetic fields could help augment the process. If you look at the known and accepted science of large scale spheromaks, external magnetic fields are used to aid their formation and manipulate them in many ways. I highly suspect that behind what may be platinum plated nickel rods are high temperature rated samarium cobalt permanent magnets. Or external magnetic fields could be applied via other mechanisms.

There are a few important facts, according to the theory provided in this document, that need to be addressed.

– The excess heat generation due to nuclear reactions seems to be primarily happening in the plasma rather than on the cathode surface or in the lattice.

– If magnets are being utilized to provide an external field, not only could they be helping aid the formation of the vortex structures but also could be helping protect the cathode surface. Two magnets in attraction to each other at either side of the reactor would produce what’s called a “magnetic mirror effect” which would cause charged particles to seek the area of reduced magnetic field strength between the two magnets.

– Andrea Rossi claims that the cathode surface is not being eroded. This could either be literally true or the Taylor cones could be regenerated as needed by allowing the control system to send a series of strong high current impulses that would repair them. The result could be a few seconds of reduced output every so often.

– To further increase the output, Andrea Rossi could add deuterium gas or LiAlD4 to increase the chance of D-D reactions during the pinches.

– X-Ray emissions would be a key signature of EVO/Spheromak/Plasmoid formation.

– According to Randell Mills, a resonant transfer plasma is self sustained for seconds. Since the pulse rate of the QX is thousands of hertz, there would be no need to use a high voltage to ionize the environment each pulse.

– A topic which is outside the scope of this essay is the choice of shielding Rossi may use around the Quark if there are any particles escaping. The author will save this discussion for a later paper.

Replication

The author of this paper feels shocked that more parties are not openly attempting to replicate the QX. Although many parties have replicated Rossi’s powder based systems utilizing Ni and LiAlH4, there have been few if any attempts to openly replicate this amazing system. Proof, beyond any possible doubt, that the QX works and performs as Rossi claims does not yet exist. However, by reviewing similar technologies it is reasonable to conclude that such a system as Rossi’s would likely produce excess energy. Therefore, it is hoped that qualified parties capable of following all needed safety protocols will seek to reproduce the effects reported.

System Overview

Platinum plated nickel rods with rounded faces with a micro-protrusion to enhance the electric field.

Samarium Cobalt magnets to back the nickel rods to provide an external magnetic field.

Fused Quartz cylinder for the reactor body. Rossi claims his is a custom creation.

Power supply with resistor(s) and computerized control system to remain in the abnormal glow discharge regime and avoid arc discharge.

Fuel in the form of LiAlH4, deuterium, and perhaps various noble gases.

Heat exchanger to transfer heat from fused quartz tube to a flow of water for calorimetry work.

Mechanism of Action

High rate of change DC discharges emit electron bunches from a protrusion on the cathode tip. The production of atomic hydrogen results in catalytic reactions that convert hydrogen atoms into a more neutron-like form, produce “hot” hydrogen atoms with hundreds of eV worth of energy, and produce a resonance transfer plasma that can be sustained at an extremely low voltage (allowing the next voltage pulse to be much lower due to the sustained plasma). The magnetic field of the electron bunch, along with any external magnetic fields present, induce the positively and negatively charged ions to self organize into toroidal or vortex structures. These structures cohere the active vacuum – perhaps extracting electron positron pairs – and generate a powerful electric field that accelerates electrons and sends them into the power supply. At the same time, nuclear reactions take place as the pinch effect squeezes the transformed hydrogen atoms into other atoms such as lithium. The resulting reactions release various forms of radiation: x-rays, gamma rays, and electromagnetic effects that could produce heat via electromagnetic induction in a conductive body. Particles may also be emitted that further ionize the environment reducing the voltage required to maintain the plasma. The reaction continues for some time with no additional fuel added to the reactor.

Consequences

Once this technology is verified and proven to work, many truths will be revealed. All at once, the reality of LENR, the reality of a range of previous radical technologies that never made it to commercialization, and the existence of an aether, a universal medium, with an unlimited well of energy to draw from will be revealed. From there, scientists and researchers will re-direct their efforts towards understanding the previously dismissed aetheric structure of the vacuum. Before long, all the forces of the universe including gravity, mass, and inertia will be understood.

Conclusion

The E-Cat QX/SK may represent the pinnacle of LENR technology while simultaneously providing for a way to extract energy from the active vacuum. If the ideas of the author are correct, the QX/SK would produce an almost limitless source of thermal and electrical energy that could be used for virtually any application.

 

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Rossi: E-Cat ‘Cold’ at 24000K Compared to Nuclear Fusion

Here’s exchange between Joseph Fine and Andrea Rossi from the Journal of Nuclear Physics today.

It is following up on statements from Rossi where he says that their main focus is to obtain a wavelength in the E-Cat SK plasma of between 430 and 440 nm, which he has equated to temperatures of around 6900 °C, and having reached a peak peak temperature of 24000 K.

Joseph Fine
October 24, 2018 at 4:51 PM
Dear Andrea Rossi, Scientist:
A peak temperature of 24,000 K is very high. It should not be called ‘Cold’. (Except compared to the Solar Corona.)
Thermal regards,
Joseph Fine

Andrea Rossi
October 25, 2018 at 5:38 AM
Dr Joseph Fine:
It is still cold, compared to the millions of Kelvin you need for the nuclear fusion. ITER and others are talking of hundred millions K and this is why they will never succeed, because it is impossible confine reliably such temperatures with an unavoidably unstable magnetic field, on a so big surface. Consider that a contact at this T even for a fraction of second between the plasma and any material would instantly sublimate the material the reactor is built with, whatever you use.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

;
I am sure that many engineers working in the fusion industry would disagree with his statement about it being impossible to “confine reliably such temperatures with an unavoidably unstable magnetic field”. Tokomak Energy, a private British fusion company, announced earlier this year that they had reached temperatures of 15 million degrees in its ST40 reactor (see: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NN-ST40-achieves-15-million-degree-target-06061801.html), and their next 2018 target is to reach 100 million degrees – the temperature needed to fuse charged deuterium and tritium particles.

However Tokomak Energy admits on its website that this is a very difficult task:

“The temperatures needed for efficient fusion to occur are over 100 million degrees and confining and controlling the immensely hot, sometimes unstable plasma, is a complicated task.

“Very sophisticated systems are required to manipulate the plasma and after decades of research tokamaks can nearly produce and sustain the plasma conditions needed for efficient fusion to occur.”

If the E-Cat SK actually works, and can be clearly demonstrated to do so, it seems it would be a much cheaper, cooler and less complicated means of producing energy, and may cause a re-assessment in the fusion industry.

E-Cat World at the January E-Cat Presentation (Update: Travel Plans Confirmed)

Recently Andrea Rossi announced that the upcoming E-Cat presentation, now scheduled for January 31, 2019 would be an internet-only event, not a live event where guests could be present, as was the case at the event in Stockholm November 2017. His reasoning was that it would be very difficult find a public venue where he would be permitted to operate his E-Cat SK which now is apparently rated at 10 kW (as opposed to 20 W in Stockholm).

This has been quite a disappointment for many people, especially those who had previously received invitations to attend. I contacted Andrea Rossi and told him I was very interested in this presentation and I would like to be there to do some in-depth reporting for E-Cat World. He has told me that I am invited to attend. I don’t know yet exactly where the presentation will take place but was told it would probably be in the Miami area.

I am still not sure quite what to expect at the presentation. Rossi has said recently that “we will show in internet videos of the Ecat SK in operation and we will answer publicly all the questions we will receive from the attendants in internet.”
I will of course have my own questions and hope to have a chance to talk with not only Andrea Rossi, but others who might be working with him. I will be there to learn as much as I can, and take as many pictures and videos as I can. I will try to report live on this site about what is going on, and should be able to respond to questions sent to me directly.

If anyone would like to help support my trip financially, I would be most grateful for it. Travel and lodging will be the main expenses. I will probably be staying on site for 3 days and nights. My Paypal address is frankacland@yahoo.com. Please get in touch if you have any questions and thanks in advance for any help!

UPDATE: Oct 28, 2018: Thanks to the support from readers here, I have enough funds raised to cover the expenses for the trip. Flight is booked, along with accommodation. The date of January 31st, 2019 for the presentation has been confirmed, the location was a surprise to me (that’s all I can say at the moment.) I really appreciate the support and I will do the best I can to provide good reporting for readers here.

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‘Antigravity’ Effect Demonstrated: Water Drips Upwards

Thanks to Max Nozin for posting a video showing an unusual effect from something described as a “Molecular Drive”
The video is produced by a Russian organization called Global Wave.

The presentation is not in English, so I am not sure what the explanation behind the effect is, but I expect there will be some readers here who can help us understand what they are claiming.

Here’s the video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BckkRHGKpOU

E-Cat Event Live Streaming Event Scheduled For January 31st, 2019

Today on the Journal of Nuclear Physics, Andrea Rossi announced that he would be holding an internet-only streaming event on January 31, 2019 (a Thursday).

In the past, Rossi has stated that this would be an event introducing his commercial product or service, but it’s not clear yet exactly what we will see. I asked him whether it would be a recorded event, or live, and he responded “It will be a live event and the public will be able to put questions.”

This will be the first public presentation that Rossi has made since the E-Cat QX presentation that took place in Stockholm in November 2017. He says that the E-Cat QX has been improved since then and now operates at 1 kW instead of the 20 W version in Stockholm. He has also said that a larger reactor, the E-Cat SK (about double the size of the QX), can now operate at 10 kW. In recent comments Rossi has stated that he will be showing the E-Cat SK at this event.

So this will certainly be an event for the E-Cat World calendar. It will be interesting to see what happens.

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Q & A With Alexander Parkhomov

I recently sent some questions to Russian LENR researcher Alexander Parkhomov regarding his reports that were recently presented at the conference in Sochi Russia.

Recently Bob Greenyer has posted an interesting video of the “Woodpecker” device that Dr. Parkhomov reported about at the conference as being a source of “strange radiation” and the in the first question he describes how it is constructed.

1) Will you release a written paper with full construction details for your Ni-H reactor and the “woodpecker” to help replicators?

AP: Any experimenter can create a “woodpecker” device. You need a horizontal flat electrode immersed in water or another liquid, and a vertical electrode in the form of a thin rod. The vertical electrode is connected to an electromagnet, which is powered by a current, the circuit of which is closed through the electrodes. When the electrodes are connected, the electromagnet pulls up the vertical electrode, the circuit opens, after which the vertical electrode falls on the horizontal one. The chain closes again, the cycle repeats. In my devices, the voltage is up to 100V, the current is several A.

2) When the rate of strange radiation track production from the Ni-H reactor drops, does the quantity of excess heat produced drop as well? How do they seem to be correlated?

AP: The speed of the appearance of tracks for some unknown reason varies greatly, even at a constant reactor power. It is not possible to investigate the correlation between excess power and the rate of appearance of tracks.

3) When your fuel was “exhausted” and excess heat production ceased, did the emission of strange radiation also stop?

AP: We did not take measurements when the reactor was exhausted.

4) Does the application of a magnetic field (from a permanent magnet for example) have an effect on the rate of strange radiation production from the Ni-H reactor? What about the woodpecker?

AP: We applied the magnetic field, but we cannot draw a reliable conclusion about its influence because of the very high variability of the rate of appearance of the tracks.

5) Kenneth R. Shoulder’s was able to manipulate the path of EVOs utilizing electrostatic fields. What effect do electrostatic fields have on the strange radiation you are producing?

AP: The influence of the electric field is a very interesting problem. But so far we have not received results in this direction.

6) Have you detected differently charged (electrostatically or magnetically) strange radiation particles coming from your devices?

AP: This question requires experimental research.

7) One idea that has been suggested is that surrounding the reactor core of your device with an external and secondary fuel could increase the COP. Basically, instead of escaping into the environment, the strange radiation would be triggering additional nuclear reactions. What are your thoughts on this possibility and what secondary fuels
would you consider as likely candidates?

AP: This idea emerges from experimental results. The candidate for secondary fuel may be, for example, aluminum, which is part of corundum tubes.

8) What do you think a strange radiation particle is composed of?

AP: I do not think that there are enough experimental results to formulate a reasonable hypothesis.

9) How do the rates of strange radiation production from the Ni-H reactor and the woodpecker compare: does one produce a greater quantity of strange radiation than the other?

AP: It is difficult to make a comparison due to the very large variability of results.

10) Bob Greenyer mentioned that you showed him an image of a round spherical reactor utilizing nickel electrodes that produced a glow discharge plasma between themselves to produce a COP of 3 or higher. Can you tell us some more about this device?

AP: In the flask were placed two tungsten tubes filled with nickel powder. Nickel was saturated with hydrogen at a pressure close to atmospheric. Then the hydrogen pressure decreased to 0.1 Torr and a voltage of 1000 V, 50 Hz was applied. A discharge ignited in the gas, the electrodes became hot, and excess heat appeared. Unfortunately, the electrodes quickly collapsed due to very high temperatures.

Experiments with a gas-discharge reactor were also made by Mikhail Mironov https://lenr.su/obosnovaniya-dlya-postrojki-gazorazryadnogo-me-hd-xyas-reaktora

11) When the Ni-H or woodpecker devices are operational and emitting strange radiation, what safety precautions do you take?

AP: We try to be far away.

12) What happens if you add a percentage of lithium to the fuel of the NiH reactor? What is the result in terms of excess heat and strange radiation?

AP: Metallic lithium poisons the reactor.

13) Your response to the last question is that metallic lithium poisons the reactor. Does this mean that it breaks the reactor, or that the LENR reactions stop when metallic lithium is used. I recall in the past that you have used LiAlH4, and this produced excess heat. Maybe metallic lithium behaves differently?

AP: LiAlH4 at a temperature of 180-200 ° C is decomposed into hydrogen and LiH. With further heating at temperatures above 300 ° C, hydrogen dissolves in nickel. Large surface of nickel powder supports to this process . If lithium metal is contained in the fuel mixture, it is melted at 180 ° C and absorbed by nickel powder. In this case, the porous structure of nickel is disturbed, as a result of which the saturation of nickel with hydrogen becomes difficult.

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Could Black Holes be ‘Dark Energy Stars’?

Thanks to Gato for sharing a link to an article from the Nautilus website. It discusses the fact that early next year we should be getting images and data from researchers who have been analyzing data collected by the Event Horizon Telescope which has been pointing at the area of the universe surrounding the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* in the center of the Milky Way.

The Nautilus article reports about the theories of George Chapline, a physicist at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory who has an unconventional way of thinking about black holes: he doesn’t think they are real, rather he thinks they are “dark energy stars”.

http://nautil.us/blog/are-black-holes-actually-dark-energy-stars

From the article:

“Chapline believes that the immense energies in a collapsing star cause its protons and neutrons to decay into a gas of photons and other elementary particles, along with what he refers to as “droplets of vacuum energy.” These form a “condensed” phase of spacetime—much like a gas under enough pressure transitions to liquid—that has a much higher density of dark energy than the spacetime surrounding the star. This provides the pressure necessary to hold gravity at bay and prevent a singularity from forming. Without a singularity in spacetime, there is no black hole.

[…]

“In recent years Chapline has continued to refine his dark energy star model in collaboration with several other authors, including Pawel Mazur of the University of South Carolina and Piotr Marecki of Leipzig University. He’s concluded that dark energy stars aren’t spherical or oblate, like black holes. Instead, they have the shape of a torus, or donut. In a rotating compact object, like a dark energy star, Chapline believes quantum effects in the spacetime condensate generate a large vortex along the object’s axis of rotation. Because the region inside the vortex is empty—think of the depression that forms at the center of whirlpool—the center of the dark energy star is hollow, like an apple without its core. A similar effect is observed when quantum mechanics is used to model rotating drops of superfluid. There too, a central vortex can form at the center of a rotating drop and, surprisingly, change its shape from a sphere to a torus.”

The article notes that Chapline’s theories are well outside the current thinking of members of the astrophysical community, but he believes that when the images of Sagittarius A* are released, they will provide support for his thinking.

Swedish Researchers Design Molecule that Can Store Solar Energy for 18 Years

The following post was forwarded to me from an E-Cat World reader from Sweden.

I found this interesting news in NyTeknik, Sweden. Maybe using Rossi’s light in E-cat?

Link:

https://www.nyteknik.se/energi/ny-teknik-kan-lagra-solenergi-i-18-ar-6934743

Excerpt Translated by Google

A research group at Chalmers [University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden] has developed a specially designed molecule that can store solar energy for up to 18 years. Now, the next step is to develop the technology to a larger scale, hoping for an energy consumption without emissions.

“Molecular solar thermal energy storage” is a circular energy system that absorbs energy from sunlight using a solar collector consisting of a concave reflector with a tube in the middle. It acts like a satellite dish by focusing the sun’s rays to a point where liquid that chemically stores energy is led through a tube. The fluid is then transported to a warehouse where energy can be stored for up to 18 years. This is possible thanks to a specially designed molecule consisting of coal, hydrogen and nitrogen.

[. . .]

When using the stored solar energy, a catalyst is used that allows the molecule to release the stored energy and, therefore, is heated. At the same time, the molecule returns to the molecular composition it had before it was exposed to sunshine.

A more technical description of this process is in this paper published by Chalmers.

http://publications.lib.chalmers.se/records/fulltext/local_163614.pdf