The following post has been submitted by ‘The Director’
No Mystery: The E-Cat QX Explained By Lost Technologies
Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat QX technology is a fascinating feline that combines multiple physical phenomena to produce both thermal and electrical output power. Allegedly producing kilowatts or more power at ultra high input-to-output ratios, the emergence of this technology could be truly paradigm shattering – with far reaching consequences that could impact all aspects of human civilization. If verified to perform as claimed, its introduction could be the catalyst that accelerates our species towards a technologically advanced state beyond the dreams of current science fiction writers. This document is an effort to describe and share the author’s best guess as to many details of the device. Many elements may be missing and some could be flat out wrong. But after researching a list of potentially related technologies including Paulo Correa’s PAGD generator, Alexander Chernetsky’s “self generating discharge” tube, Randell Mills’ hydrino, Leif Holmlid’s Ultra Dense Hydrogen theories, Kenneth R. Shoulders’ discovery of EVOs, and several others including information about the E-Cat QX, the author believes the information in this document is worthy of consideration.
Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat QX/SK seems to be constructed of two large electrodes (alleged to be constituted of nickel) with rounded faces positioned within a cylinder of what may be a form of fused quartz or other heat resistant material. To insure the QX remains compliant with his granted patent application, Rossi maintains that it also utilizes lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4). Hence, a Ni-LiAlH4 combination. Likely, only a small quantity is utilized and subsequently vaporized by the high temperature plasma, creating a low pressure atmosphere within the cylinder. After an initial higher voltage impulse at startup, pulsed DC voltage is applied at around one hundred kilohertz. The claimed result is both thermal power being generated and electrical impulses that are transmitted back to the power supply – resulting in the need for a power hungry cooling system to keep the temperature of the electronic control system within operational tolerances.
For a description of the Stockholm demonstration and further information about what was learned about the QX, you can visit Mats Lewan’s website: https://animpossibleinvention.com/2017/11/26/reflections-on-the-nov-24-e-cat-qx-demo-in-stockholm/
Many aspects of the QX resemble other alternative energy technologies from decades past, including those of Chernetsky and Correa. Both of their systems utilized electrical discharges in a gaseous environment to produce a plasma resulting in excess power output: although they were both focused on electrical power generation.
An initial thought that comes to mind is that like these two systems, the electrodes of the QX likely produce surface protrusions perhaps appropriately described as similar to Taylor cones. These spike- like protrusions resulting from series of higher powered initial discharges produced an intense electric field amplification effect that reached a maximum potential at the sharp tip. If damaged or eroded away, the output of the PAGD (Correa) and Self Generating Discharge tube (Chernetsky) would fall down back to unity — a COP of 1.
Also, in a similar manner to these two systems, the author conjectures that the QX operates within the “abnormal glow discharge” zone of a plasma discharge which can be described as a “negative resistance” region at which current climbs while voltage drops. This is the area that the magic happens. If exceeded, the negative resistance effect will end, ordinary electrical resistance will appear, and quickly an “arc discharge” will form between the cathode and anode. Such an arc discharge is undesirable for multiple reasons: not only because it’s not in the proper “zone” for effects that will be subsequently described in this essay but also because the erosion rate of the cathode will skyrocket, destroying the Taylor cone.
Many design considerations need to be considered to reduce the chance of an arc discharge forming. Perhaps the most obvious consideration is the use of a resistor in the circuit of the power supply to restrict the current from reaching what would trigger an arc discharge. Additionally, a computerized control system should be utilized to control voltage and amperage levels. Yet another consideration is the choice of cathode material. Nickel may not be optimal. According to the patents of the Correas, the work function of materials should be considered. This is especially true with the E-Cat if you consider that the nickel electrodes – if they are solid nickel – are reasonably good thermionic emitters. At high temperatures, nickel electrodes will spew out electrons in a manner that may not be easily controlled, allowing for arc discharges and electrode erosion. This is due to its relatively low work function that permits electrons to escape its surface.
Examining the work functions of common metals, Platinum has a higher work function and is described in scientific literature as being a very poor thermionic emitter material, especially when not used in combination with dopants. Since Andrea Rossi has experience using platinum, and we know he has access to the material – purchasing a quantity from Johnson Matthey – he may use the metal to reduce the chance of unwanted thermionic emission. As not to eliminate nickel from the device, to maximize adherence to his “Fluid Heater” patent, it’s possible that the electrodes are only coated with platinum. This would not be a bad idea for yet another reason when considering the high temperatures within the QX. The melting point of platinum is 1,768C compared to 1,455C. A difference of a little over 300 degrees may not seem like a lot but could be critical in a hostile environment such as the plasma atmosphere of the QX.
The QX is also alleged to operate at very low voltages, below what would normally allow for a plasma column between two electrodes to exist. Interestingly, the interaction of atomic hydrogen and “atomic lithium” is alleged to induce a catalytic reaction according to Randell Mills of Brilliant Light Power. Mills claims that when atomic hydrogen contacts atomic lithium (in addition to a range of other catalytic elements) the electron orbit of the hydrogen atom shrinks to a fractional state. Regardless of whether whether you accept that an electron can orbit a proton below the ground state, Mills provides evidence of something fundamentally interesting occurring: a release of energy that produces “hot” hydrogen species, free electrons, and the creation of what he describes as a “resonant transfer plasma.” This resonant transfer plasma, according to Mills’ claims, can even be produced when a hot tungsten rod is exposed to a gaseous atmosphere of atomic hydrogen and one or more of a list of catalysts. In this case, the release of energy will create ionic species in the vicinity of the tungsten which creates a glow that’s visible to the naked eye. Moreover, Mills claims that the same reaction can allow for a plasma to be formed between two electrodes at between 1 and 2 volts per centimeter of distance between cathode and anode. This is a huge reduction that’s quite frankly impossible unless some little understood phenomena is taking place. Interestingly, it could explain the low operating voltage of the Quark. According to Mills’ theory and the experimental results of third parties, lithium is a catalyst for the generation of such a transfer resonant plasma! Since the QX utilizes lithium and hydrogen this effect should be present if this phenomena exists: which it seems to be.
This does not necessarily mean that hydrinos, exactly as described in Randell Mills patents and papers, are being formed. I think it likely means that the elements in the E-Cat and the devices of Black Light Power do convert hydrogen into another form while releasing a specific quanta of energy. However, very interestingly, before Randell Mills distanced himself from Cold Fusion (LENR), he speculated in two of his early patents that hydrinos could catalyze nuclear reactions. In this theory, the Coulomb barrier of the hydrino was weakened or reduced, so that hydrinos could more closely approach the nucleus of other atoms — dramatically increasing the probability of inducing nuclear reactions. To be fair, there are probably a dozen other theories about hydrogen atoms – sometimes with additional electrons – being converted into another form that could act as a catalyst for LENR. Whose to say which one is correct; the author of this paper does not wish to be bound by any one theory.
Before moving on, it should be noted that various noble gases such as helium and argon are also catalysts according to the theory of Randell Mills and have been confirmed by third parties. There has been some controversy on the internet about the color of the plasma produced in the QX. Apparently, certain individuals allege that it may have changed. A good reason for this could be that Andrea Rossi has performed tests with mixtures of various gaseous additives to enhance the basic LiAlH4 formula that falls under the Fluid Heater patent.
As mentioned previously, the system is pulsed with DC at around 100 khz – at least during the Stockholm demonstration. When a DC pulse is applied, the electric field amplification effect at the tip of the cathode ionizes the environment even further, releasing an “electron bunch” or a conglomeration of electrons. This could be considered an electric current. And as we know, an electric current produces a magnetic field. This changing magnetic field due to the Lorentz force can induce helical motion of the charged particles: the electrons, protons, noble gas ions, and lithium ions. These charged particles can form curly filaments that could be conceptualized as stretched out slinky – a common toy from a previous age. Under the proper electromagnetic conditions, the ends of these filaments can come together and produce toroidal loops. Negatively charged electrons would be moving along the outside of these “donut” shaped objects (which could be compared to a typical toroidal inductor with copper wire wrapped around the exterior) and positive ions would be moving within the body.
On the small scale, the objects that result could be described as micro-ball lightning or Kenneth R. Shoulders “Exotic Vacuum Objects” (EVOs). Moving upwards, such torodial plasmoids (a term coined by Bostic) could be considered as macro-scale spheromaks. Regardless of which term is used, they are self-organizing plasma structures. The effect that created them is the magnetic “pinch” effect which seems to be a phenomena that can take place on many different scales: nano, micro, and macro. But these structures may not only exist individually but could also be visualized as Russian nesting dolls: a larger plasmoid torus could contain or, perhaps, decompose and release a multitude of smaller structures.
Alexander Chernetsky’s Self Generating Discharge plasma tube was stated to also utilize the magnetic pinch effect. Considering only one of several of his devices, a transparent tube several inches in diameter and perhaps four or more feet long, when a critical current density was achieved, the pinch effect would transform his plasma into divided “cycloid” segments. When these circular rings appeared, the excess electrical input would show up.
Compared to Chernetsky or Correa’s devices, the QX is tiny, with a much smaller plasma channel. However, the principle of operation seems to be similar among all these devices. Andrea Rossi’s control box increases the voltage in a very abrupt manner (with a high rate of dv/dt) at a high rate of change. Since the device seems to be experiencing a negative resistance in the abnormal glow discharge zone, the rate of current change will be even greater – because the resistance falls as voltage increases. This sudden, non-equilibrium jolt pushes electrons suddenly and produces a powerful magnetic field: hence, a strong Lorentz force is felt by all charged ions. Perhaps aided by the presence of an externally applied magnetic field (more on this soon), a toroidal plasma vortex is formed (also known as a toroidal pinch).
From here energy producing effects start to occur. First, the plasma vortex or spheromak formed starts to cohere the zero point energy field and utilize electron-positron pairs from the vacuum to produce a powerful electric field — that accelerates electrons and sends a surge of power straight back to the power supply! Thus, the initial DC pulse into the QX results in two individual pulses: a forward pulse and a back pulse.
Here are some descriptions of this process in regards to the aforementioned systems of Chernetsky and Correa:
About the Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge Generator of Paulo Correa from “Power from Autoelectronic Emissions by P.N. Correa and A.N. Correa — http://www.aetherometry.com/Labofex_Plasma_Physics/Archive/PwrfromAEemissions.html
“In accordance with Aspden’s treatment of the Law of electrodynamics (23, 56, 95, 97), our invention of the XS NRG Power Generation System is made possible by the engraftment of the extraordinarily large PAGD reaction forces transduced by distinct plasma flows, as a surplus of electric energy in closed charge systems. To borrow the language of Prigogine, these apparently closed systems give rise to self-organizing structures that are in fact transiently open physical systems, when they elicit anomalous reaction forces under specific conditions of performance. It is as if, through the auto-electronic metal/plasma interaction and the self-extinguishing characteristic of the PAGD regime, electrical power is directly squeezed out of metal ‘in vacuo’, by virtue of a pulsatory interaction with the polarized ‘vacuum’ field energy.”
About Chernetsky’s Self Generating Discharge tube from “Vacuum Energy: A Breakthrough” by Andrei Samokhin — http://www.keelynet.com/energy/plasmafe.txt
“This is how Chernetsky explains his miraculous experiment: ‘The self-generating discharge emerges when the discharge current reaches a definite criticaldensity, when the magnetic fields they create ensure magnetization of plasma electrons and they begin to perform MOSTLY CYCLOID movements. The interaction of currents with their magnetic fields forces the electrons to deviate to the CYLINDER-SHAPED discharge axis and the electrical field emerges. It has proved to ‘switch on’ the physical vacuum: in this field the vacuum is polarized and consequently the virtual pairs begin to move in a definite direction, instead of chaotically.
“The virtual positrons accelerate plasma electrons, giving them part of their energy. The current in the circuit builds up and additional energy is discharged on the resistor switched into the discharge circuit. Clearly, only part of the tremendous vacuum energy is extracted.’”
From ‘Self-generating Electrical Discharge” by Alexander V. Frolov —
“Technical aspects of experimental SGD device were not detailed by Chernetsky in  but he explained the ways to get SGD. By his definition, self-generating discharge is special type of electrical arc that can be created at certain value of density of discharge current. Since voltampere diagram of any arc consist of decreasing and increasing part, Chernetsky noted two ways for self-sustaining electrical oscillations: at first, small current way on the decreasing part of the diagram when the resistance of the arc is negative, and at second, great current way on the increasing part of the diagram when the arc plasma electrons are interacting with strong magnetic field of plasma (so called pinch-effect was found by Chernetsky in 1960th). First way seems me as most simple and effective way and there were produced some simple experiments to prove it . But Alexander V. Chernetsky used the second way to get the self-sustaining oscillation in plasma. He noted: the pinch-effect produce the radial electrical field in the arc and corresponding radial magnetic field. In development of his explanation let me note: since the primary source create axial movement of changed particles between electrodes, the reason of radial separation and additional energy of the plasma particles is well-known Lorenz force. Positive feedback in this circuit is the next: pinch-effect compress the plasma in radial direction, then radial electromagnetic field interact with axially moving particles of plasma to increase radial separation, so the energy of plasma particles is increasing up to change of electrodes polarity that stop the arc process. The change is produced by plasma particle and the source is direct current source only. The changes of electrodes polarity are possible only if the energy of the particle is increased in process of the movement in the arc gap between electrodes. Capacity and inductive parameters of experimental device define the resonance frequency of the oscillations. Chernetsky tested 3MHz oscillations and duration of pulses was about 30 microseconds. He used voltage 600VDC (direct current source). The plasma was created in hydrogen at pressure about 0.1 T.”
Even more interesting, here is a description of the PAGD that could very well apply to the QX. from “Power from Autoelectronic Emissions by P.N. Correa and A.N. Correa — http://www.aetherometry.com/Labofex_Plasma_Physics/Archive/PwrfromAEemissions.html
“Given the self-pulsed characteristics of the autogenous PAGD regime, the pulse generator effectively functions as a simple DC inverter producing quasi regular large discontinuous “AC” pulses that, once filtered from the associated DC signal, can be directly utilized to power and control electromagnetic motors, relays and transformer circuits. This line of investigation culminated in the patented design of basic PAGD motor and other inverter circuits (91-92). This was the origin of the Labofex Motor Drive (LMD) which utilizes innovative motor principles based upon a total control of the variables affecting PAGD production (applied voltage, applied current, residual gas nature, pressure, electrode area, reactive gap distance, electrode geometry, cathode work-function, etc) (91-92). Similar applications would soon follow for transmission of the generated impulses across space, the design of DC inverters and of polyphasic systems (91-92).”
It seems to the author that by some mechanism energy from the vacuum is being tapped by these systems, and the same is likely true for the QX. However, that’s not the end of the story. The “pinch” effect is also a mechanism that can induce nuclear reactions by compressing atoms together. If there is a form of hydrogen – perhaps configured to seem more neutron-like with a reduced charge – capable of inducing nuclear reactions with other atoms through weak interactions, then perhaps the pinch effect would be even more effective at inducing nuclear reactions. In this case, most likely, between hydrogen (modified in some manner) and lithium (or perhaps aluminum or even other hydrogen atoms). The effect would be that at every pulse of DC input, there would not only be energy extracted from the vacuum but nuclear reactions releasing MeVs of energy. This energy could be what is producing the tremendous heat in the QX. However, it could also serve to further ionize the gas in the interior of the reactor reducing the required constant input voltage.
In reality, there could be three sources of energy being utilized in the QX:
- The energy that’s released when hydrogen is transformed to another state that’s more susceptible to undergoing nuclear reactions (regardless if this means it has transformed into Mills’ hydrino or not). This is expected to be in the range of hundreds of keV per transformation.
- The energy that’s extracted from the vacuum that produces a powerful electric field that can burn out the power supply as has happened with both Correa’s and Chernetsky’s devices. With each DC pulse there are two pulses of output. One output push goes in the expected direction and the other slams back into the power supply.
- The energy from the nuclear reactions that take place during the pinches. This is probably where most of the energy comes from.
This system is complex enough that Rossi has many parameters to play around with, such as tuning the pulsing frequency to hit a resonance. Most likely, there’s a frequency range that’s best for different gaps between electrodes, different elemental compositions of the plasma, and different electrode geometries. Also, although there’s a self generating magnetic field produced by the discharge itself that’s capable of organizing the ions into vortexes, external magnetic fields could help augment the process. If you look at the known and accepted science of large scale spheromaks, external magnetic fields are used to aid their formation and manipulate them in many ways. I highly suspect that behind what may be platinum plated nickel rods are high temperature rated samarium cobalt permanent magnets. Or external magnetic fields could be applied via other mechanisms.
There are a few important facts, according to the theory provided in this document, that need to be addressed.
– The excess heat generation due to nuclear reactions seems to be primarily happening in the plasma rather than on the cathode surface or in the lattice.
– If magnets are being utilized to provide an external field, not only could they be helping aid the formation of the vortex structures but also could be helping protect the cathode surface. Two magnets in attraction to each other at either side of the reactor would produce what’s called a “magnetic mirror effect” which would cause charged particles to seek the area of reduced magnetic field strength between the two magnets.
– Andrea Rossi claims that the cathode surface is not being eroded. This could either be literally true or the Taylor cones could be regenerated as needed by allowing the control system to send a series of strong high current impulses that would repair them. The result could be a few seconds of reduced output every so often.
– To further increase the output, Andrea Rossi could add deuterium gas or LiAlD4 to increase the chance of D-D reactions during the pinches.
– X-Ray emissions would be a key signature of EVO/Spheromak/Plasmoid formation.
– According to Randell Mills, a resonant transfer plasma is self sustained for seconds. Since the pulse rate of the QX is thousands of hertz, there would be no need to use a high voltage to ionize the environment each pulse.
– A topic which is outside the scope of this essay is the choice of shielding Rossi may use around the Quark if there are any particles escaping. The author will save this discussion for a later paper.
The author of this paper feels shocked that more parties are not openly attempting to replicate the QX. Although many parties have replicated Rossi’s powder based systems utilizing Ni and LiAlH4, there have been few if any attempts to openly replicate this amazing system. Proof, beyond any possible doubt, that the QX works and performs as Rossi claims does not yet exist. However, by reviewing similar technologies it is reasonable to conclude that such a system as Rossi’s would likely produce excess energy. Therefore, it is hoped that qualified parties capable of following all needed safety protocols will seek to reproduce the effects reported.
Platinum plated nickel rods with rounded faces with a micro-protrusion to enhance the electric field.
Samarium Cobalt magnets to back the nickel rods to provide an external magnetic field.
Fused Quartz cylinder for the reactor body. Rossi claims his is a custom creation.
Power supply with resistor(s) and computerized control system to remain in the abnormal glow discharge regime and avoid arc discharge.
Fuel in the form of LiAlH4, deuterium, and perhaps various noble gases.
Heat exchanger to transfer heat from fused quartz tube to a flow of water for calorimetry work.
Mechanism of Action
High rate of change DC discharges emit electron bunches from a protrusion on the cathode tip. The production of atomic hydrogen results in catalytic reactions that convert hydrogen atoms into a more neutron-like form, produce “hot” hydrogen atoms with hundreds of eV worth of energy, and produce a resonance transfer plasma that can be sustained at an extremely low voltage (allowing the next voltage pulse to be much lower due to the sustained plasma). The magnetic field of the electron bunch, along with any external magnetic fields present, induce the positively and negatively charged ions to self organize into toroidal or vortex structures. These structures cohere the active vacuum – perhaps extracting electron positron pairs – and generate a powerful electric field that accelerates electrons and sends them into the power supply. At the same time, nuclear reactions take place as the pinch effect squeezes the transformed hydrogen atoms into other atoms such as lithium. The resulting reactions release various forms of radiation: x-rays, gamma rays, and electromagnetic effects that could produce heat via electromagnetic induction in a conductive body. Particles may also be emitted that further ionize the environment reducing the voltage required to maintain the plasma. The reaction continues for some time with no additional fuel added to the reactor.
Once this technology is verified and proven to work, many truths will be revealed. All at once, the reality of LENR, the reality of a range of previous radical technologies that never made it to commercialization, and the existence of an aether, a universal medium, with an unlimited well of energy to draw from will be revealed. From there, scientists and researchers will re-direct their efforts towards understanding the previously dismissed aetheric structure of the vacuum. Before long, all the forces of the universe including gravity, mass, and inertia will be understood.
The E-Cat QX/SK may represent the pinnacle of LENR technology while simultaneously providing for a way to extract energy from the active vacuum. If the ideas of the author are correct, the QX/SK would produce an almost limitless source of thermal and electrical energy that could be used for virtually any application.