New Paper: “Elliptical Tracks: Evidence for Superluminal Electrons?” (Keith Fredricks)

Thanks to Jonas Matuzas for posting about a new article posted on the Preprints website, a venue for publishing scientific papers which are “pre-screened”, but not peer reviewed.

The article is authored by Keith Fredricks and is titled “Elliptical Tracks: Evidence for Superluminal Electrons?”, published on July 15th 2019.

https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/201907.0181/v1

Here is the abstract:

In the literature of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), particle tracks in photographic emulsions (and other materials) associated with certain electrical discharges have been reported. Some Russian and French researchers have considered these particles to be magnetic monopoles. These tracks correspond directly to tracks created with a simple uniform exposure to photons without an electrical discharge source. This simpler method of producing tracks supports a comprehensive exploration of particle track properties. Out of 750 exposures with this method, elliptical particle tracks were detected, 22 of which were compared to Bohr-Sommerfeld electron orbits. Ellipses fitted to the tracks were found to have quantized semi-major axis sizes with ratios of ≈n2/α2 to corresponding Bohr-Sommerfeld hydrogen ellipses. This prompts inquiry relevant to magnetic monopoles due to the n2/α2 force difference between magnetic charge and electric charge using the Schwinger quantization condition. A model using analogy with the electron indicates that the elliptical tracks could be created by a bound magnetically charged particle with mass mm = 1.45 × 10-3 eV/c2, yet with superluminal velocities. Using a modified extended relativity model, mm becomes the relativistic mass of a superluminal electron, with m0 = 5.11 × 10-3 eV/c2, the fine structure constant becomes a mass ratio and charge quantization is the result of two states of the electron.

The full text is available at the website, published under the Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Hungarian LENR Researchers Respond to the Google LENR Group’s Negative Results

The following post has been submitted by Gregory Goble

Interesting paper titled “On Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions” published on arXiv, 21 June 2019, by Péter Kálmán and Tamás Keszthelyi out of Hungary.

They have been involved in LENR research for years. Review their works at LENR-CANR,org. I’ve also included a link to their Research Gate project. There you will find another paper worth reviewing published in Physical Review, May of 2019 titled, “Forbidden Nuclear Reactions”

arXiv Article – On Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions
https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.05211v1.pdf
P´eter K´alm´an and Tam´as Keszthelyi Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Institute of Physics, Budapest, Hungary

Abstract

Based on our recent theoretical findings (Phys. Rev. C 99, 054620v(2019)) it is shown that proton and deuteron capture reactions of extremely low energy may have accountable rate in the case of all elements of the periodic table. Certain numerical results of rates of
nuclear reactions of two final fragments of extremely low energy are also given. New way of thinking about low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) phenomena is suggested. Possible explanations for the contradictory observations announced between 1905-1927 and possible
reasons for negative results of ’cold fusion’ experiments published recently by the Google-organized scientific group (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1256-6) are given.

From page 4

Quote:

Experiments of negative results of Google-organized research group

In [14], three principal directions of research were specified: highly hydrated metals, calorimetry under extreme conditions and low-energy nuclear reactions. (This later terminology was to define a special pulsed deuterium plasma device [22] which was applied to induce
nuclear reactions of low energy.) However, nuclear transmutation [5]-[8], which is the most important phenomenon connected to LENR, was missing. It was shown above that nuclear transmutation is possible for all the elements of the periodic table therefore it is expected that traces of it must be present in all LENR observations. There exist very sensitive methods which are capable to determine small amounts of changes of chemical composition of materials and show the appearance of nuclear transmutation. Thus omission of search for nuclear transmutation is the main fault in the program of [14]. – end quotes

Research Gate Project – Low Energy Nuclear Processes
https://www.researchgate.net/project/low-energy-nuclear-processes
Péter Kálmán and Tamás Keszthelyi

Goal: Low energy nuclear processes that are strongly hindered by Coulomb repulsion between the reacting nuclei, are investigated in solid environment. The hindering effect may be significantly weakened (practically it disappears) if one takes into account the Coulomb
interaction of one of the reacting particles with the surroundings. If the modification of the wave function due to Coulomb interaction with charged constituents of the environment is taken into account applying standard perturbation calculation of quantum mechanics then wave
components of high momentum with small amplitude are mixed to the initial wave of small momentum. To these partial waves of high momentum much higher Coulomb factor can be attached that can drastically increase the cross section. The mechanism (called recoil assistance) opens the door to a great variety of nuclear processes that so far have been thought to have negligible rate at low energies. Low energy nuclear reactions allowed by recoil assistance lead to nuclear transmutations too.

Physical Review article – Forbidden Nuclear Reactions
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333307315_Forbidden_nuclear_reactionsKálmán, Péter & Keszthelyi, Tamás. (2019).. Physical Review C. 99.
10.1103/PhysRevC.99.054620.

Exothermal nuclear reactions that become forbidden due to Coulomb repulsion in the ɛ→0 limit [limɛ→0σɛ=0] are investigated. [σɛ is the cross section and ɛ is the center of mass
energy.] It is found that any perturbation may mix states with small but finite amplitude to the initial state resulting in finite cross section (and rate) of the originally forbidden nuclear reaction in the ɛ→0 limit. The statement is illustrated by modification of nuclear
reactions due to impurities in a gas mix of atomic state. The change of the wave function of reacting particles in nuclear range due to their Coulomb interaction with impurity is determined using standard time-independent perturbation calculation of quantum mechanics. As an
example, cross section, rate and power densities of impurity-assisted nuclear pd reaction are numerically calculated. With the aid of astrophysical factors cross section and power densities of the impurity-assisted d(d,n)He23, d(d,p)t,d(t,n)He24, He23(d,p)He24, Li36(p,α)He23, Li36(d,α)He24, Li37(p,α)He24, Be49(p,α)Li36,Be49(p,d)Be48,Be49(α,n)C612,B510(p,α)Be47, and B511(p,α)Be48 reactions are also given. The affect of gas mix-wall interaction on the process is considered too.

Rossi: Permanent Self-sustaining E-Cat Producing Heat ‘Very, Very, Close’

Andrea Rossi has mentioned often his work on getting direct electricity production from the E-Cat SK plasma, but according to a new comment on the Journal of Nuclear Physics, he is also continuing to develop the heat-only E-Cat SK, and has an ambitious goal here too.

In response to a question by JPR about self-sustain mode, Ross wrote this:

Andrea Rossi
July 18, 2019 at 9:03 AM
Jean Paul Renoir:
To make the Ecat in permanent self sustaining mode, without external power source, to make heat the probability is high. We are very, very close. Then also a Carnot cycle becomes an ssm system to make electricity.
To make the same producing electricity directly from the plasma in a quantity enough to yield substantial electricity for sale or other uses, much work more has to be done.
The first mode is easier, due to the fact that the Ecat SK has a very low consume of electricity.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

I followed up with some questions about what ‘permanent self-sustain mode’ actually meant:

Frank Acland
July 18, 2019 at 7:32 PM
Dear Andrea,

Interesting that you say a permanently self-sustaining heat-producing E-Cat is very close. Can you help me understand what exactly you mean?

1. Will you need an external power source to start the E-Cat reaction?
2. Will the control system need to be connected to an external power source continuously?
3. Do you need to have access to grid electricity for this?

His responses:

Andrea Rossi
July 18, 2019 at 8:44 PM
Frank Acland:
1- no
2- no
3- no
But be careful: ” very close ” does not mean ” done ” ( so far ).
Warm Regards,
A.R.

I really don’t grasp what such a system would look like. Permanent self-sustain implies that it is always on, and powering itself somehow. Of course it would be a remarkable achievement, but he says it is non done yet, and maybe his description of ‘very close’ is overly optimistic.

Adrian Ashfield Dies

Thanks to Bob Greenyer for sharing the sad news of the death of Adrian Ashfield, a long-time contributor to this site and a friend and supporter of LENR. I was not aware that he had been ill, but Bob shared this about him:

He had been suffering from eyesight loss and so his ability to engage was becoming harder. I enjoyed many email conversations with this intelligent and accomplished man. The first thing he did when reaching out to the MFMP was offer us equipment. He was a good spirit whose positive attitude allowed him to create things others could not do. I feel for his family and friend.

An obituary can be found here:

https://www.legacy.com/obituaries/thedailyjournal/obituary.aspx?n=adrian-ashfield&pid=193147752&fhid=29188

Since we are mostly just computer commenters here, we really don’t know much about each other. People rarely share information about health and other personal issues, so it’s quite a shock to find out they are no longer with us. We each have only so much time to make contributions in this life. Thanks Adrian for yours, and may you continue to do good work in your new location. Condolences to your loved ones

New Video on Cold Fusion – ‘Double Moonshot’

Thanks to Causal Observer for pointing out a new video on the ‘Answers With Joe’ YouTube Channel, run by Joe Scott, which deals with cold fusion. Personally I had previously never hears of Joe Scott, or his channel, but he does have quite a lot of YouTube influence, with over 400,000 subscribers. The channel deals with finding answers to ‘the most perplexing question in the universe’ mainly in the fields of science and technology.

Scott begins by saying that skepticism can be its own dogma, and that if you don’t look outside the established parameters, science can’t move forward. But he also says he himself tends to side with the scientific consensus because he respects the fact that so many people have dedicated their whole working lives in science and he has no grounds to challenge these experienced experts.

Having said all that, however, he thinks it is worth looking at cold fusion because there is the slightest chance that it could prove to be real — he calls it a ‘double-moonshot’, similar to the EmDrive, in that it just might work.

The video is basically a retelling of the Pons and Fleischmann story, with no real comment on current developments.

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Rice University News: Recycling Waste Heat into Light with Carbon Nanotubes

Thanks to PieEconomics for the following comment and link:

This could be the second most important energy related scientific discovery in our lifetime (the first being LENR):

Squeezing Heat Bandwidth To Become Light, and then Electricity, With 80% Efficiency…

Rice University
Rice device channels heat into light

http://news.rice.edu/2019/07/12/rice-device-channels-heat-into-light/

An Excerpt:

The ever-more-humble carbon nanotube may be just the device to make solar panels – and anything else that loses energy through heat – far more efficient.

Rice University scientists are designing arrays of aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes to channel mid-infrared radiation (aka heat) and greatly raise the efficiency of solar energy systems.

A Rice University simulation shows an array of cavities patterned into a film of aligned carbon nanotubes. When optimized, the film absorbs thermal photons and emits light in a narrow bandwidth that can be recycled as electricity. Illustration by Chloe Doiron

Gururaj Naik and Junichiro Kono of Rice’s Brown School of Engineering introduced their technology in ACS Photonics.

Their invention is a hyperbolic thermal emitter that can absorb intense heat that would otherwise be spewed into the atmosphere, squeeze it into a narrow bandwidth and emit it as light that can be turned into electricity.

The discovery rests on another by Kono’s group in 2016 when it found a simple method to make highly aligned, wafer-scale films of closely packed nanotubes.

Gururaj Naik and Junichiro Kono of Rice’s Brown School of Engineering introduced their technology in ACS Photonics.

Their invention is a hyperbolic thermal emitter that can absorb intense heat that would otherwise be spewed into the atmosphere, squeeze it into a narrow bandwidth and emit it as light that can be turned into electricity.

The discovery rests on another by Kono’s group in 2016 when it found a simple method to make highly aligned, wafer-scale films of closely packed nanotubes

Discussions with Naik, who joined Rice in 2016, led the pair to see if the films could be used to direct “thermal photons.”

“Thermal photons are just photons emitted from a hot body,” Kono said. “If you look at something hot with an infrared camera, you see it glow. The camera is capturing these thermally excited photons.”

Consider the implications…

2003 Japanese Study of Pure Titanium Treated with Ohmasa Gas Show Element Synthesis and Production of Nanocarbon

Thanks to Bob Greenyer for sharing this post, and links:

Just got sent this, this afternoon

2003 Japanese Study of pure Titanium treated with Ohmasa Gas show element synthesis and production of Nanocarbon.

Large atomic % of Aluminium found around ‘burned’ hole, some signs of Cu production also.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Uyk3VgQ-QdyqDhx5BooMwxfIIbkFr3Bt/view

https://uploads.disquscdn.c…Ti

Production of Al with N + Ti
http://www.nanosoft.co.nz/results/TwoToTwo_E1eqNandE2eqTiandE3eqAlByMeVDescLimit100.html
Production of Cu with N + Ti
http://www.nanosoft.co.nz/results/TwoToTwo_E1eqNandE2eqTiandE4eqCuByMeVDescLimit100.html

Production of Fe with N + Ti
http://www.nanosoft.co.nz/results/TwoToTwo_E1eqNandE2eqTiandE4eqFeByMeVDescLimit100.html to Two Reactions

Production of Si with N + Ti
http://www.nanosoft.co.nz/results/TwoToTwo_E1eqNandE2eqTiandE3eqSiByMeVDescLimit100.html

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Rossi: ‘Hints’ of Electricity Production in Experiments

Andrea Rossi has been a little more candid today about the status of the experiments he is currently running in the attempt to produce electricity directly from the E-Cat. Gerard McEk asked him on the Journal of Nuclear Physics about what he would consider a ‘cigar’ in terms of current testing (Rossi has said so far there has been ‘no cigar’).

 

Gerard McEk
July 10, 2019 at 1:56 PM
Dear Andrea,
When would you lit the cigar for the Electrical Ecat:
1. If the electrical output exceeds the electrical input
2. If the electrical output exceeds 25% of the total output
3. If the electrical output exceeds 50% of the total output
4. Some other goals

Andrea Rossi
July 10, 2019 at 3:11 PM
Gerrd McEk:
The answer 1 should give COP infinite. Obviously two cigars are better than 1…and counting.
You have no idea how badly we are working on it. Theoretically we should get it, but so far experimentally we had only hints of it.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

I followed up with a question:

Frank Acland
July 11, 2019 at 2:00 AM
Dear Andrea,

If you are only getting hints of direct electricity production from the e-cat in experiments, when your guiding theory says you should get it, do you think the theory needs to change?

Frank Acland
July 11, 2019 at 2:00 AM
Dear Andrea,

If you are only getting hints of direct electricity production from the e-cat in experiments, when your guiding theory says you should get it, do you think the theory needs to change?

Andrea Rossi
July 11, 2019 at 8:36 AM
Frank Acland:
The theory grows up together with the experiments in a dialectic evolution.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

If Rossi is only getting ‘hints’ of electricity, it doesn’t sound like too much progress, but it seems clear that he is committed to this project and will continue until such time as he thinks it is impossible to achieve.

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Energy Department Invests Nearly $50 Million at National Laboratories and Universities to Advance Nuclear Technology (U.S. Dept of Energy News Release)

The following is a news release from the US Department of Energy published June 7th here: https://www.energy.gov/ne/articles/energy-department-invests-nearly-50-million-national-laboratories-and-universities

Energy Department Invests Nearly $50 Million at National Laboratories and Universities to Advance Nuclear Technology 

WASHINGTON, D.C. – The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced $49.3 million in nuclear energy research, facility access, crosscutting technology development, and infrastructure awards for 58 advanced nuclear technology projects in 25 states. The awards fall under DOE’s nuclear energy programs called the Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP), the Nuclear Science User Facilities (NSUF) program, and crosscutting research projects.

“DOE is looking to the future, and that’s why we are investing in advanced nuclear technologies. Nuclear energy is a critical part of our all-of-the-above energy strategy, and early-stage research can help ensure it will continue to be a clean, reliable, and resilient source of electricity for a long time to come,” said Ed McGinnis, DOE’s Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy.

Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP)

DOE is awarding more than $28.5 million through its Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP) to support 40 university-led nuclear energy research and development projects in 23 states. NEUP seeks to maintain U.S. leadership in nuclear research across the country by providing top science and engineering faculty and their students with opportunities to develop innovative technologies and solutions for civil nuclear capabilities.

Additionally, seven university-led projects will receive more than $1.6 million for research reactor and infrastructure improvements providing important safety, performance and student education-related upgrades to a portion of the nation’s 25 university research reactors as well as enhancing university research and training infrastructure.

Crosscutting Research Projects

Five research and development projects led by DOE national laboratories and U.S. universities will receive $4.5 million in funding. Together, they will conduct research to address crosscutting nuclear energy challenges that will help to develop advanced sensors and instrumentation, advanced manufacturing methods, and materials for multiple nuclear reactor plant and fuel applications.

Nuclear Science User Facilities (NSUF)

DOE has selected two university-, one national laboratory- and three industry-led projects that will take advantage of NSUF capabilities to investigate important nuclear fuel and material applications. DOE will support three of these projects with a total of $1.5 million in research funds. All six of these projects will be supported by more than $10 million in facility access costs and expertise for experimental neutron and ion irradiation testing, post-irradiation examination facilities, synchrotron beamline capabilities, and technical assistance for design and analysis of experiments through NSUF. In addition, two of the abovementioned NEUP R&D projects will be supported with $3 million in NSUF access funds.

With this year’s awards, the Office of Nuclear Energy has now awarded more than $678 million to continue American leadership in clean energy innovation and to train the next generation of nuclear engineers and scientists through its university programs since 2009. Visit Energy.gov for information on all of DOE’s efforts to continue American leadership in low-carbon nuclear energy innovation.

Letter to the Editor of Nature (Nicholas Shaw)

The following post has been submitted by Nicholas Shaw.

Recently E-Cat World covered the secondary source article published in Nature about the failed google LENR experiments. I also was interested in those Nature publications when they came out, but I was disappointed by their inaccuracies of reporting on current successful LENR experiments in the literature. So I decided to write to the Correspondence section of Nature to write a rebuttal to the editorial articles in the form of a letter to the editor. Nature today responded to me and rejected my letter for publication. I am writing this post to submit the same letter to e-catworld in hopes you would consider publishing this letter on e-catworld.com:

Regarding and in response to: “Lessons from cold fusion, 30 years on” By: Philip Ball. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-01673-x
Published in the World View News Editorial section of Nature 569, 601 (2019).

Ball unfairly rejected recent evidence supporting the potential promise of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR). Indeed, some recent literature has supported this possibility, and should have been included in his recent World View article. I write to bring these to light so that the full array of evidence is available. I do this by focusing on evidence brought forward by three different research teams within the past four years in respected peer-reviewed scientific journals.

Kidwell et al. (2015) described the observation of radio frequency emissions associated with excess heat generation that is not explained by electrochemistry. This publication describes in detail the successful experiments that occurred and the conditions used for these experiments. The researchers in this publication performed 335 experiments with a fraction resulting in excess heat. Lalik et al. (2015) inadvertently detected anomalous heat from the testing of passive autocatalytic recombination (PAR) technology. This publication describes that the authors accidentally found evidence of LENR in a PAR technology that has a similar environment to those described by Fleischmann and Pons in 1989. These authors warn of the danger of the ignorance about LENR processes because it could cause unanticipated failures in similar systems. Finally, in 2018, Kitamura et al. reported highly detailed replicable experiments that resulted in excess heat generation that cannot be explained by any chemical process or reaction. This group of researchers conducted experiments designed by the progression of experimental research completed between 2008-2015.

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