Wall Street Journal: Energy Giants Investing for Hydrogen Economy

An article from yesterday’s Wall Street Journal focuses on the investments that many large energy companies are taking steps to prepare for large-scale use of hydrogen as a fuel of the future in the fight to reduce carbon emissions worldwide.

Title of the article: “Major Energy Companies Bet Big on Hydrogen”
Link: https://www.wsj.com/articles/major-energy-companies-bet-big-on-hydrogen-11603392160 (subscription required to read full article, buy you can listen to the full audio version at the link)

According to the article, European energy giants like Royal Dutch Shell, BP and Repsol are seeing opportunities in developing the production of hydrogen. These companies all have goals and programs to reduce carbon emissions, and when it comes to hydrogen these companies already have expertise and experience with fuel storage, compression and transportation and can use those to their advantage when dealing with hydrogen.

Hydrogen is used in fuel cells where it is combined with oxygen to generate electricity. It can also be be burned to power an internal combustion engine. There are no carbon emissions when hydrogen is burned, but hydrogen combustion engines do produce nitrogen oxides (NOx) which are toxic.

The WSJ article cites a study by BloombergNEF titled “Hydrogen Economy Outlook” published earlier this year which stated that by 2050, one third of greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced if governments implement necessary policies to support the development of the hydrogen economy.

Such policies could be higher taxes on carbon fuels which could make hydrogen more competitive, or subsidies to support hydrogen production. At the moment, hydrogen is produced in various ways some of which require fossil fuel emissions. Color codes are used to identify different methods of hydrogen production: Brown – uses coal, grey – uses natural gas, blue – uses natural gas with carbon capture and storage, green – uses renewable energy such as solar or wind. Green hydrogen is considered the most environmentally desirable, but at the moment is also the most expensive.

The hydrogen economy has been talked about for many years, but hydrogen still seems to be a somewhat marginal player in the overall goal to transition away from carbon producing energy. If nothing better comes along, maybe it will help play a bigger role in our energy future, but it does seem to require a great deal of investment and infrastructure to be widely adopted.

Rossi and Team ‘Brainstorming’ E-Cat SKL Marketing Strategy, Still Undecided

I asked Andrea Rossi what his plans were to get the attention of potential E-Cat SKL customers were. His response:

Andrea Rossi
October 20, 2020 at 3:09 PM
Frank Acland:
Good question. We are brainstorming about this issue. The choice of a correct advertising. To make things more complicated are the distorsions caused by the Covid 19.
We have not decided yet, but internet will be the carrier.
Warm Regards,

I think that it won’t be terribly difficult for Rossi to attract the attention of potential customers if the E-Cat SKL works in the ways he has described. It’s a product without any precedent, and something that almost anyone can think of a way to benefit from.

The important task for Rossi to accomplish is to convince people that what he has is real and works well.

Already there have been many good suggestions posted by readers on the Journal of Nuclear Physics on ways to do that, for example, a coast-to-coast journey of an EV powered by the SKL, or a continuous live video feed showing the SKL doing something ‘impossible’. I think there a lots of possibilities.

So far he has kept the SKL closely under wraps, only showing it to select parties under NDA. Once that has been done, I think his biggest challenge will be keeping up with demand.

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The First Room-temperature Superconductor has Been Found

Thanks to an ECW reader for sending the following:

The first room-temperature superconductor has finally been found. A compound of carbon, hydrogen and sulfur conducts electricity without resistance up to 15° C, but there’s a catch – these results are only achieved under high pressure.

Article from Nature News

“First room-temperature superconductor excites — and baffles — scientists”


“Scientists have created a mystery material that seems to conduct electricity without any resistance at temperatures of up to about 15 °C. That’s a new record for superconductivity, a phenomenon usually associated with very cold temperatures. The material itself is poorly understood, but it shows the potential of a class of superconductors discovered in 2015.”

An article on this topic has been posted by the New Scientist titled: “First room-temperature superconductor could spark energy revolution”


The author states that if we can create a material that can superconduct at lower pressures,

“This material could be used in applications ranging from quantum computing to building better MRI machines to drastically reducing energy waste from electricity transmission. “If we could make superconducting wires that we didn’t have to cool, we could in principle replace the whole power grid,” says Zurek. “That would be a real revolution.”

Rossi: Energy = Information Density

Andrea Rossi posted an unusual comment on the Journal of Nuclear Physics recently in response to a question about what he considers a definition of energy:

October 17, 2020 at 4:58 AM
Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
After your paper
how would you describe the term “energy”, like “energy =…” ?

Andrea Rossi
October 17, 2020 at 5:06 AM
Energy = information density in the space-time
Warm Regards,

I followed up with a question:

Frank Acland
October 17, 2020 at 9:03 PM

Dear Andrea,

A standard definition of energy is “the capacity for doing work”. Today you gave a definition of energy as: “information density in the space-time”.

Can you explain why you have such a different definition of energy than is normal?

His response:

Andrea Rossi
October 18, 2020 at 2:42 AM
Frank Acland:
“capacity for doing work” is a definition of an attribute, not of the intrinsic being. It is like to say that the definition of a car is ” capacity to move “: it is not a definition of a car, it is an atrribute of it.
Warm Regards,

I think this is more of a philosophical issue than a practical one, and really has no bearing on whether the E-Cat SKL works well or not, but it may be an indication of how Rossi is thinking about his work these days. When he speaks of energy in terms of information density, it may reflect his approach to working with the E-Cat where it seems that the alogrithms of his control systems play a very important role.

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Indian Team Announces Excess Heat Production in 40+ day LENR Test

Thanks to Bob Greenyer for reporting about the following:

In a document titled ‘Modular Heat and Energy you can Carry’, published by the Centre for Energy Research at S-VYASA University in Bengaluru, India, the authors announce that they have been successful in generating excess heat over a period of more than 40 days from a LENR experimental setup.

The document has been uploaded at the LENR-Forum here:


Here is an excerpt:

“We at the CER have been working for the last five years on experimental techniques and methods of generating excess heat through what is popularly known as Cold Fusion (CF) or Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR).

“Mainly what is being done is triggering the atoms and molecules of metals like Nickel / Palladium
under different pressures of H2 / D2 and temperature conditions in many forms and see whether we can get sustained energy in the form of heat for long durations in terms of several months without any additional inputs or attention.

“We in this bulletin are reporting and we are happy to inform that we have designed, developed and
tried out a practical reactor over the last two years and now we are sharing the results with 50 W of electrical energy given as an input, the reactor is able to generate additional 50 Watts of excess heat
for long durations consistently. At the time of release of this bulletin, this reactor has already
completed more than 40 days of continuous generation of excess heat on a 24 X 7 basis and the
total energy that has been generated so far is more than 60 Mega Joules.”

Francesco Celani et al. Publishe “Path to get AHE [Anomalous Heat Effect]”

Francesco Celani made a presentation at the ANV4 workshop on LENR & Earth, which was held in Assisi during September 10-12 titled: “The role of forced, active gas, flux for the generation of AHE in LENR
experiments: discussion on procedures to increase it.”

His presentation focused on comparing the effect of hydrogen flux induced by a temperature gradient versus hydrogen flux induced externally via electromagnetic pulse inputs. As a conclusion, hydrogen flux plays a key role in his group’s constantan wire fueled reactor setup.

The full presentation is available at this link:


Here is a summary from page 3 of the above document:

Path to get AHE [Anomalous Heat Effect], after 31 years of experiments. (according to general and our specific know-how)

1) At first, it is necessary to load proper materials (Pd, Ti, Ni, alloys) with active gas (H2, D2,..);
Commons experience, worldwide, in almost all LENR experiments;

2) Induce Non-equilibrium conditions of loaded materials by: thermal or concentration gradients, movement of charged species, phase transitions, voltage stimulation,…………..; Mostly our specific evidence/suggestion, since April 1989, later-on “common sense”;

3) Observed experimentally that the “interaction” of active gas with the gas-loaded material,
as strong and fast as possible, is main factor governing the AHE generation: the active gas FLUX seems to be the main parameter but it needs external energy to activate it; Almost clear proof only after in-deep analysis of >80 experiments (IJCMNS, July 2020);

4) Efforts to develop innovative procedures to minimize the (electrical) external energy needed to generate non-equilibrium of the, gas loaded, active material: both into the bulk (like electromigration phenomena) and at the surface (at sub-micrometric size). Current and next experiments at INFN-LNF.

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Important New Aspect of E-Cats (Gerard McEk)

The following post has been submitted by Gerard McEk.

Many of you may have missed my last dialogue with Andrea Rossi, which was the following:

Gerard McEk
October 12, 2020 at 4:53 AM
Dear Andrea,
In Jan. 12 2020 the following was asked:
“Nils Fryklund
January 12, 2020 at 5:59 AM
Dear Andrea!
Some questions about E-catSK, 22kW, which was been installed at a customer 19 november 2018:
1. Is it still giving 22kW at the customer?
2. Is the customer satisfied or has there been much problems?
3. How much fuel powder weight do you guess it has consumed?
Best regards
Nils Fryklund“
And this was your answer:
“Andrea Rossi
January 12, 2020 at 10:31 AM
Nils Fryklund:
1- yes
2- satisfied
3- still the original charge
Warm Regards,
May I ask it the same questions again, what is your reply now, 3//4 of a year later? 1,2,3 same answers
4. I assume that the principles of the SK do not dramatically differ from the Ecat SKL. Can similar operation times be expected of the SKL? yes
5. Obviously the operational time does not only depend on the ‘fuel’ or charge but maybe also on wear and tear of components. But only looking to the ‘fuel’: Have you ever ran a SKL so long that the ‘fuel’ was exhausted? no
6. When that happens, is then the fuel a. exhausted or b. saturated or c. something else t.b.d.
Thank you for replying on our questions!
Kind regards, Gerard

I have printed Andrea’s answers to my questions in bold.

Please realize that these are quite remarkable answers!

Just to summarize:
There is a 20 kW SK reactor (producing heat) already running for nearly 2 years without recharging!

Also important:
Andrea does not know if and when it runs out of fuel and also not what the cause would be, so it seems!

Further, he agrees that the SK and the SKL are based on the same principle, in other words:
Andrea seems to have invented a perpetuum mobile, because the SKL can generate its own input energy and deliver much more!

‘Perpetuum mobile?’ you will ask. But Andrea has said that the energy may come from electrons that change to a new state with a lower enthalpy (into these ‘pico-metric aggregates’ as he calls them in his paper on ResearchGate). But it is not clear what happens with these aggregates. Wouldn’t they saturate the reactor after a while? How much energy is being released by this anyway? Would the energy density be similar to nuclear energy? My feeling is that it would be much less. And Andrea said it is not nuclear. So where does it come from? Some suggested Zero Point energy or Vacuum energy. Maybe it comes from there, but I have some doubts.

Nevertheless that energy should come from somewhere and I believe that Andrea does not really know where it comes from. I think he does also not know if the ‘fuel’ of the SKL would ever saturate or exhaust at all. If the Ecat SKLe is indeed confirmed, Physics is on the brink of a revolution that is so gigantic that nobody can comprehend right now!

I am really very interested to see how the scientific community reacts when the Ecat SKL comes on the market. And what interests me even more is the ‘new physics’ that eventually will explain this phenomenon. I certainly look forward to that.

Gerard McEk

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Bob Greenyer Reviews DISCOVER COLD FUSION by Ruby Carat

Thanks to Bob Greenyer for posting a link to a new video he has published reviewing the new comic book DISCOVER COLD FUSION by Ruby Carat, and illustrated Matt Howath

Bob comments: “I highly recommend this comic to anyone to have in a choice reading place in one’s house, office or lab or [to give] as a present for a thinking significant other to enjoy.”

DISCOVER COLD FUSION is available to order at https://www.discovercoldfusion.com/ or https://www.curtis-press.com/ and ships Sept. 21 from the U.K.

E-Cat Range Extension for Electric Vehicles (Peter Wolstenholme)

The following article has been submitted by ECW reader Peter Wolstenolme.

E-Cat Range Extension for Electric Vehicles

Peter Wolstenholme

October 2020.

There seems to be quite some confusion about this issue, so here are some calculations. The idea is to install a couple of E-Cat SKL units in a motor vehicle, and I have taken the Tesla Model 3, with the smaller 50 kWh battery, as an example. If I were to define the control software I should use up one E-cat rather more than the other, after first installation, so that only one runs out of power (or fails for some reason) at any time, and the car can be driven for a while until a replacement unit is installed. Let us assume that each E-Cat can provide 5 kW of electrical power.

The motor power of a Tesla 3 is over 200 kW, but we must realise that this can not be the average. That load would drain the battery in 15 minutes, or less. As the range is quoted at 220 miles (350 km) then we might assume that, if driving rather fast at an average 75 mph( 120 kph) the battery would run out after, say, 2h. 30 min. Thus a practical range might be 300 km ( 190 miles). This implies that the average power consumption is 20 kW.

Now consider a trip with the E-cats installed. One might drive for a couple of hours between a few pauses for coffee, meals or other reasons, and a long trip might involve 2 hours of such breaks and 7 hours of actual driving. If the battery is fully charged at the start, with 50 kWh, the E-cats will add 20 kWh to this during the pauses, and will drop the net consumption down to 10 kW while moving. So 7 x 10 = 70 kWh will be used, but 50 + 20 = 70 kWh will be available.

The range would be 120 x 7 = 840 km (525 miles). With care, and at a lower cruising speed, one might make Calais to Aix-en-Provence in one such day. Although a similar performance can be achieved without the E-cat if Tesla chargers are ideally located along one’s route, and always available, the E-Cats would greatly simplify planning for long journeys and of course the larger 75 kWh battery option would not make sense. Similar calculations can be performed for other models and for other E-Cat power assumptions. Furthermore, a planning error which manages to fully drain the battery can be fixed by a 15 minute pause, and a drive at low speed to a convenient resting place. No need for the breakdown truck!

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