Financial Times Covers Investors in Industrial Heat

The UK’s Financial Times has published a new piece about cold fusion, this time looking at the financial backing that has been given to Industrial Heat by British Financial Manager Neil Woodford, and such people such as actor Brad Pitt and Laurene Powell Jobs (widow and heir of Steve Jobs), and her brother Gregory Powell.

The article, titled “The long-shot science that attracted Brad Pitt and Neil Woodford” is here:

The article states that Industrial Heat has raised $100 million, and is valued at almost $1 billion, with one quarter of the company owned by Neil Woodford. (Woodford has been in the financial news recently as his Woodford Equity Income Fund has been frozen, with investors now unable to redeem their shares for the time being)

Only Industrial Heat’s chief executive Thomas Darden was willing to make a comment to the Financial Times. He stated that they are continuing with their efforts with cold fusion research, and have invested in many other researchers besides Andrea Rossi who they backed early, but since famously split from following the lawsuit he brought against them.

There are other news reports that have picked up on this FT story including CNBC here, and Business Insider here.

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Turning Mass Into Energy With the E-Cat SK (Mats Lewan)

The following post was submitted by Mats Lewan

What if LENR reactions turn out to be more energy dense than fission and fusion, or in other words, that they have a higher efficiency extracting mass out of a certain quantity of fuel and turn it into energy?

Rossi told me that the total quantity of fuel (powder) in the Doral 1MW plant was about 6-7 kg. He hasn’t told me about any results of an isotopic analysis of the used fuel but I got an impression that he considers the portion of the fuel that was involved in the reaction to be too small to result in any significant isotopic shifts. I don’t know if this is correct, since I have no knowledge about the analysis.

But let’s assume that this is correct. Let us then compare to well-known nuclear and chemical reactions.

Releasing 1MW of power for one year means a total energy of about 9 GWh which, according to E=mc2, corresponds to about 0.3 grams of mass turned into energy. The question now regards the fuel efficiency.

For example, the Hiroshima bomb contained 64 kg of uranium out of which a little less than 1 kg underwent nuclear fission. The released energy was about 15 kt TNT or 17 GWh which corresponds to less than a gram of mass turned into energy.

The Nagasaki bomb offers similar numbers—6 kg of plutonium of which about 1 kg underwent nuclear fission releasing 21 kt TNT or about 24 GWh, which corresponds to about 1 gram of mass turned into energy.

In other words, in order to turn about 1 gram of mass into energy, you need to let 15-20 kt of fuel undergo a chemical reaction, or about 1 kg fuel undergo a nuclear fission reaction (and you need several times more mass of fuel to make one kg undergo fission). This makes nuclear fission about 10 mln times more fuel efficient than chemical reactions.

(The mass turned into energy in chemical reactions and in nuclear fission derives from binding energy in atoms/molecules or in nuclei respectively, being released, resulting in a corresponding decrease of mass).

This also means that if the LENR reaction powering the E-Cat system in Doral had the same fuel efficiency as nuclear fission, about 300 grams of the 6-7 kg of fuel should have been involved in the reaction. That would be about 5 percent of the fuel which would easily be detected through isotopic analysis of the used fuel.

Now, *IF* the isotopic analysis didn’t show any significant shift, this could mean that the fuel efficiency is higher than in nuclear fission, or in other words that only a minor amount, let’s say a few grams of the total fuel amount of 6-7 kg, was involved in the reaction in order to turn 0.3 grams of mass into energy.

The smallest possible amount would obviously be 0.3 grams of fuel involved, meaning that the LENR process would be 100 percent fuel efficient, compared to nuclear fission being about 0.1 percent fuel efficient and chemical reactions being less than 0.00001 percent fuel efficient.

Optimising the technology, which Rossi apparently has done through the development of the E-Cat SK, this could mean that instead of needing 6-7 kg of fuel to produce 1 MW of power, you would need much less fuel. Looking at the photo of the QX which essentially would be the same core reactor as the SK, this seems probable–you would need about 50 SK (each rated at 20 kW) to produce 1MW of power and I don’t think that you would fit about 100 grams of fuel in each reactor.

On the contrary, I think Rossi says there’s about a gram of fuel in each reactor, meaning that the total amount of fuel would be about 50 grams. This already puts the LENR reaction ahead of nuclear efficiency–in the worst case the fuel lasts only for a year, meaning that you need 50 grams of fuel ot transform 0.3 grams of mass into energy, making the fuel efficiency 0.6 percent or six times higher than nuclear fission.

If the SK on the other hand is 100% fuel efficient, this fuel would last for about 150 years.

ALSO, Since I’m curious to get a picture of what the opinion is today about Andrea Rossi and his claims, I invite you to answer to a poll on whether he has what he claims. Feel free to share.

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Rossi: New Direct Electricity E-Cat Test Underway

Andrea Rossi has been talking for some time about working hard on a version of the E-Cat that is able to generate electricity directly, instead of just producing heat. So far he has not claimed success with this project, but he has now stated that he has started a test which he says will give an indication whether this goal is actually feasible.

Here are a few quotes from the Journal of Nuclear Physics:

Andrea Rossi
June 6, 2019 at 2:11 PM
Frank Acland:
An extremely important test is on course.
At the end of next week I will have a clear idea of the level we reached.
Thank you for your attention to the work of our team,
Warm Regards,

Andrea Rossi
June 8, 2019 at 11:49 AM
Steven N. Karels:
This test, particularly important, will endure through all the next week. It will tell us if if it is really gonna work.
I think at the end of the next week we will have some ides of what is going on.
Hopes are many.
Warm Regards,

Andrea Rossi
June 8, 2019 at 11:51 AM
Frank Acland:
This particular test is made in California, because there we have the right technological support for this particular test.
Warm Regards,

I am sure this is going to be a very intense time for Rossi and his team. I think direct electricity production from the E-Cat really would be the Holy Grail for this technology, and as he has been saying lately, making a closed-loop E-Cat with infinite COP possible. As ever, this all has to be confirmed.

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Cold Fusion Goes Mainstream: National Geographic, Financial Times Give Positive Coverage

It has been interesting to follow the reactions to the recent article published in Nature about the Google-funded research projects in cold fusion. It seems to me that the field has now been given a new lease on life, as researchers who are outside the ‘LENR underground’ are now saying that although they have not so far been able to replicate the Fleischmann and Pons experiments, they feel there is something worth pursuing in the field.

In additional to the Nature articles, well-known media outlets are also now giving space and time to the subject, something that has been unheard of for decades.

National Geographic published on May 29 an article titled “Cold fusion remains elusive—but these scientists may revive the quest”. Here is an excerpt:

‘Though the work may well raise eyebrows, Google was aware of the risks. Two of the review’s coauthors, Google engineers Ross Koningstein and David Fork, have argued that to deliver meaningful innovation in the energy sector, 70 percent of research funding should flow to core technologies, 20 percent should be dedicated to cutting-edge research, and 10 percent should back high-risk ideas that just might work—like cold fusion.

‘Whether their experiments yield an energy breakthrough, the research team hopes they’ve provided cover for young researchers and government funding agencies to reconsider this area of science with an open mind.

“The timing is really good for this,” says lead author Curtis Berlinguette, a chemist at the University of British Columbia. “I’m just really excited to show the younger generations of scientists it’s okay to take risks—to take the long shots.”’

This is an interesting and important point, I believe. There has been little to no funding available for research in the CF/LENR field because of the stigma associated with it, and so it has been very difficult for younger generations of researchers to get involved.

The UK’s Financial Times has also published an opinion piece by science editor Clive Cookson on the subject titled “Thirty years later, the cold fusion dream is still alive”

Cookson believes that scientific research in the field of cold fusion should be encouraged, not scorned, because even if it is difficult and the chances of success low, the potential payoffs could be immense. He reports personally visiting the lab of researcher Russ George in Essex UK and being impressed by the work going on there.

He writes:

‘Although none of the experiments generated excess heat or radiation indicative of nuclear reactions, the Google-funded scientists insist that the project was worthwhile because it yielded several insights — for instance, into the behaviour of hydrogen inside metals — and new techniques such as improved calorimetry to measure heat flows. They hold out hope that future research might succeed in proving that cold fusion is a real phenomenon, if methods can be found to pack hydrogen more densely into the atomic lattice of metal electrodes.’

In my mind, anything that encourages serious research into CF/LENR is overall good for the field. If new researchers get involved, and new funding is available, and the appellation “junk science” is removed, then I think we are seeing progress. Google may turn out to have done an important service to cold fusion.

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The SAFIRE Project – SAFIRE Reactor and Lab Walkthrough (Video)

Thanks to Bob Greenyer for sharing the following video from the SAFIRE project.

Montgomery Childs of the Safire Project gives a walkthrough of the Safire lab in which they are attempting to replicate the mechanism of the sun which they theorize that the sun: “is a positively charged force in a generally negatively charged environment. The idea behind it is that electricity is the primal force in the universe”.

The video shows the Safire chamber and the components that are used to create a plasma that they believe is an analogue of the sun, and various tools used to take measurements.

At the end of the video they briefly show a list of recent discoveries they have made:

> Dark mode plasma electromagnetic structures

> Sequestering of heavy elements to the SAFIRE core

> New elements confirmed by mass and optical spectra, SEM and EDAX

> Extreme atmospheric pressure changes as a response to high energy plasma discharges (may be analogous to the changes in the velocity of the solar wind due to CME’s)

They state that to date all data collected from SAFIRE confirms their hypothesis that electricity is the primal force in the universe.

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LENR Research at MIT “Goes On”

An article reporting on the Google-funded project reported in Nature has been published in MIT News here:

It contains an interview with Yet-Ming Chiang, the Kyocera Professor in MIT’s Department of Materials Science and Engineering who was a member of the research team which Google funded to look again into cold fusion. Dr. Chiang explains that the work was conducted in secret. He states ” We didn’t want the fact that Google was funding research in this area to become a distraction. For the first couple of years, we didn’t even tell other members of our group the real reason behind the hydrogen storage experiments going on in the lab! ”

He also explains that the work of this team continues and that they are looking to add more members to the research group. Here is an excerpt:

“What we’ve learned over the past three years has suggested new ways to use electrochemistry and materials science to create highly loaded metal hydrides: palladium for sure, but also other metals. We believe that we have found certain knobs that could allow us to create phase states that have not been accessible before. If we can controllably produce these, they will be very interesting target materials for other experiments within the broader program looking at, for example, neutron yields from deuterium-deuterium fusion in a plasma discharge device at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab.”

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How to Achieve a 200% Conversion of Energy into Work – The Ringwood Energy Recycler Experiment

The following post has been submitted by Sandy Robson

Please Note:-

– this is not an attempt to create, or work towards a perpetuum mobile; the circuit used in these tests includes all the usual losses, it is the configuration and interaction of the whole system (battery + circuit) which exhibits interesting behaviour

– trying to quantify values for power levels and energy conversion can be tricky when current is switched through coils and LEDs; so, to avoid contention, the results described here have been obtained (as far as possible) by quantifying and comparing DC values, quantities of charge, and durations of time


The recharging of secondary batteries (or cells) requires electrical energy to be supplied, converted as work done in driving current through the cells; as a result of this work done, chemical energy becomes stored within the cells, available to be be converted back into electrical energy when required

A fully-charged 3 cell 750mAh NiMH battery, for example, could contain up to approximately 10000 Joules of energy

You might reasonably expect that when such a battery is then used to supply electrical power that we would only be able to convert a maximum of 10000 Joules of energy as work done

It appears, however, that it is possible to effectively double the total amount of work converted from the energy supplied

For example, we can arrange for part of the energy provided by the battery to be converted, say, to light, by means of a simple switched-mode power supply type circuit, driving a cluster of a few LEDs; some energy will be converted to heat as losses in the system, but any remaining part of the energy can be collected and used to do work in recharging a battery

The circuit used in these tests is not particularly unusual – it’s a simple blocking oscillator and it has a work-efficiency of approximately 85% (quantifiable-work performed for total energy supplied)

Unquantified losses include resistive heat-loss in the switching transistor & diode, coil windings, and transistor biasing


The battery capacity can be characterised by discharging it using a resistor with a known value

As an example, using a battery with 3 NiMH cells of 750mAh rated capacity, a fully charged battery supplied a 268 ohm (measured) resistor with an average power of 14.4mA x 3.86V for 42.5 hours, converting a total of 8504 Joules of energy


When the discharge resistor is replaced with the preliminary circuit, the quantifiable work consists of two parts:-
– converting 3105 Joules to illuminate some LEDs
– recharging a spare battery (in this case, not the supply battery) by using the 4238 Joules of energy which is being temporarily stored in the circuit as a by-product of the oscillator operation

The circuit provides this quantifiable work for a total of 30.5 hours, drawing an average of 20.1mA at 3.86V to draw a total of 8603 Joules (approximately matching the total energy, 8504 Joules, converted by the nominal 270 ohm resistor)

In this mode, the circuit draws the total energy available and converts this to 7343 Joules of quantifiable work, giving a quantifiable-work efficiency of 85%

so far, so expected


When the circuit is connected in ‘feedback to supply’ mode, however (see Fig. 1 in the accompanying Data PDF file for an overview of the circuit current paths), we see some interesting behaviour emerging: the most obvious is that the circuit will continue to operate for almost twice the duration of the conventional, non-feedback mode – the circuit now operates for a total of 60.5 hours, whilst drawing the same real average power, 20.1mA at 3.86V, (compared to 30.5 hours duration for the non-feedback mode) with the loads remaining the same values.

[Note that the circuit can operate at the same power drain for longer because it is constantly re-charging its supply with a proportion of the energy which has been input – the actual supply current drained is pulsed, with an average of 20.1mA, whilst 10mA av. is switched back into the battery, being interleaved each cycle similar to time-division-multiplexed operation (see Fig. 2 in the Data PDF file), resulting in a ‘virtual’ current drain from the battery of (20.1mA – 10.1mA) = 10mA av.]

The total energy drawn by the circuit is now 16898 Joules

The efficiency of the oscillator circuit compared to its total energy drawn hasn’t changed essentially:
the quantifiable work has increased to 14566 Joules, and these values give an efficiency of 14566 / 16898 = 86%

The overall system efficiency for quantifiable work from the original energy in the battery, however, is now 14566 / 8504 = 170%

The total system efficiency for conversion of energy in the whole system (battery + circuit) now becomes: 16898 / 8504 = 199%


The system is recycling its input energy by a factor of 1.99

The ‘feedback to supply’ mode has extended the duration for circuit operation and enabled the amount of useful energy available for the LEDs to be approximately doubled compared to the ‘no feedback’ arrangement.

Although the total work converted by the switching circuit LEDs, on their own, remains less than the original supply of energy, and the work-efficiency of those circuit LEDs matches that of a passive resistor-driven LED arrangement, the ‘With-Feedback’ current arrangement still enables the circuit to produce a level of light output slightly greater than the passive DC-drive arrangement but for approximately 34% longer duration (45 hours duration for the passive drive, 60.5 hours for the ‘With-Feedback’ circuit).

This resulting system behaviour provides a worthwhile gain, which has been enabled by the 200% conversion to work of the original store of energy in the battery.

s robson
27 May 2019


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E-Cat: The Long View (Roland van Nus)

The following post has been submitted by Roland van Nus.

If the short view of the E-Cat focuses on the immediate technical issues and the intermediate view focuses specific industries and enterprises the long view focuses on how the Ecat might bend the arc of nations.

Leonardo Corp. has already revealed aspects of their thinking in the choice of nations that host manufacturing facilities, the USA, Japan and Sweden.

Altering the arc of the USA presents unique challenges in that it is the only one of the three who’s economy and politics are deeply intertwined with the carbon based industries; after all America invented the modern oil and gas business that now wields immense financial clout and, for all our intents and purposes here, owns one of the two political parties. Leonardo has already survived a run in with legal firm Jones Day who richly exist at the very nexus of this clout.

The obvious exception to this general observation is the State of California where the political climate is distinct from the nation as a whole and where the extended fire season is threatening the integrity of the electrical grid in a state that is home to the nation’s tech industry, the entertainment industry and a substantial contingent of the nation’s defense contractors, all of which are dependent upon reliable electrical power.

Japan is in a much more precarious position from an energy perspective; the events at Fukushima exposed the fundamental design flaw in a General Electric reactor design that was chosen for it’s economy, against the advice offered by GE at the time, at the expense of safety. This decision turned out to be catastrophic and has undermined public support for nuclear power generation. Japan has no indigenous O&G reserves and imports all its carbon fuels leaving it at the mercy of the markets and geopolitical considerations of other nations. The potential for the empowerment of Japan through the auspices of the Ecat could be seen as a significant bargaining chip in garnering political support for a national effort to move to a LENR economy once the viability of the technology is demonstrated at scale.

Through a complex of factors and historical developments Sweden presents the most immediate case for the power of LENR to bend the arc of a nation.

Sheer size is a factor as the USA has a population of 325.7 million and Japan has a population of 126.8 million whereas Sweden has a population of 10.2 million while maintaining a GDP per capita slightly higher than that of Japan. Sweden was an early adopter at the dawn of the electrical age and built extensive hydro facilities that provided reliable inexpensive power that propelled their economy for decades.

From 1975 to 1985 a total of 12 nuclear reactors were commissioned in Sweden and provided half the nation’s base load capacity, of these 12 three have already been decommissioned and a further three will be decommissioned over the next 18 months. This turning away from nuclear power was impelled by successive shifts in public opinion following accidents at Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, several relatively minor incidences at Swedish reactors, and a final blow from the disaster at Fukushima. Following Three Mile Island a public referendum led to the decision to decommission reactors as they aged, rather than refurbish them, and though the wisdom of this course has repeatedly come into question each subsequent event has further hardened public opposition to nuclear power.

As these plants were decommissioned the decline in base load capacity began to put a drag on the general economy, which is almost entirely concentrated in the southern temperate region of the country, and to offset this over 3,800 wind turbines were installed in the northern part of the country, as dictated by favorable the atmospheric conditions there.

Due to financial constraints facing the network of independent power distributors that comprise the Swedish electrical grid the necessary high tension power lines were delayed and much needed power is still not being delivered to the south of the country, and, understandably, commerce and industry have been notably reluctant to locate to the frozen northern hinterlands.

The situation has deteriorated to the point that Ericsson’s 5G roll out in Stockholm is in doubt, multi billion dollar high tech investments are being delayed and, for the first time since the beginning of electrification, brown outs are occurring in Southern cities during demand spikes.
The energy intense Swedish economy has relied on cheap reliable electrical power to harness a highly educated populace to leading edge technologies for well over a century; currently this model is imperiled.

It seems fitting that Leonardo Corp. honored Sevn Kullander, by naming the latest iteration of the E-Cat after him, in light of the role he played in advancing their cause both theoretically, and materially, by putting the weight of the Physics Department of the world’s second oldest university, at Uppsala, and the reputation and financing of ELFORSK behind running a month long experiment that produced the Lugano Report, the success of which underscored the legitimacy of Rossi’s long quest for a viable LENR technology.

In the long view Leonardo Corp. could bend the arc of a deserving Swedish nation by providing enterprise scale power on location, as needed, as a company priority when that becomes feasible, and by so doing provide the world with an exemplar of what a wealthy high tech carbon and nuclear free future can look like at a national scale.

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Lattice White Paper: LENRs Enable Green Radiation-Free Nuclear Power and Propulsion (Lewis Larson)

Thanks to Greg Goble for the following comment and reference.

Studying this and learning… interesting history… excellent presentation. Worthy of its own thread and discussion. The race to LENR energy commercialization is gaining full stride… Quote L.L.”No a priori technical reason why LENRs could not scale-up as fast as fission did”. I’m fairly certain the oil and gas industry has advanced labs working on LENR energy systems. I expect we will see these corporate LENR players works’ soon. In the future we will likely be saying how stupid and ignorant we were to burn these valuable aromatic molecules. Once again, Lewis Larson (pg 23) invites the oil/coal industry to create LENR feedstock. “LENR technology provides a compelling strategic opportunity for fossil fuel companies because it could enable future processing and conversion of aromatic molecules found in oil and coal into green CO2-free nanoparticulate LENR fuels that have >5,000x the energy density of gasoline.”

Lewis Larson – May 16, 2019 “Lattice White Paper: LENRs enable green radiation-free nuclear power and propulsion”

If commercialized, LENRs could become one of the world’s preeminent energy technologies. At system electrical power outputs of just 5 – 10 kwh, modular LENR-based distributed power generation systems providing combined heat and electricity (CHP) could satisfy energy requirements of a majority of urban and rural households as well as smaller businesses worldwide. Much lower-output, revolutionary portable LENR power sources could displace chemical batteries in applications where ultrahigh performance and longevity are needed. At electrical outputs of 60 – 200 kwh, LENR-based integrated power generation systems would be able to power vehicles, drones, as well as smaller aircraft and watercraft. This would break oil-based fuels’ 150-year stranglehold on internal combustion engines and decisively decarbonize the entire transportation sector. High-performance LENR thermal sources could also provide high-quality heat for many types of industrial processes.

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Clean Planet, a Pioneer in New Clean Energy Development, Receives Investment from Miura (Press Release)

Thanks to Teppo for sharing this press release from Clean Planet Inc.

To the Press
May 15, 2019
Miura Co., Ltd.
Clean Planet Inc.
“Ushering in Revolutionary Clean Energy to Our Global Community”
Clean Planet, a pioneer in new clean energy development, receives investment from Miura

Miura Co., Ltd., Japan’s leading boiler manufacturer, has subscribed to newly issued shares of Clean Planet Inc., in Tokyo, through a third-party allotment of new shares on May 15, 2019.The Miura Group has developed, manufactured, and marketed a range of products in the heat, water, and environment fields throughout the world since 1959. It continues to develop unique products and services that are energy-efficient and effective in environment-related fields, in order to realize its corporate mission of “contributing to creating a society that is environmentally friendly and ways of living that are clean and comfortable through our work in the field of the Energy, Water, and Environment”. The Miura Group will now collaborate with Clean Planet to implement the clean energy technologies which Clean Planet has developed with Tohoku University, toward realizing a decarbonized society.

Clean Planet is a venture company that undertakes R&D into new forms of clean energy that  are  “safe,  stable,  and  low-cost”  in  order  to create  novel  innovations  in  the  energy industry  for  social  infrastructure.  Clean  Planet’s  research  lab  is  located  at  the  “Condensed Matter Nuclear Reaction Division” within the Research Center for Electron Photon Science at Tohoku  University.  The  research lab  was  founded  jointly  with  the  university  in  2015.  The company is working on the development of “New Hydrogen Energy” which gives enormous energy  output  per  hydrogen  unit  compared  with  conventional  hydrogen  energy.  The  heat source  developed  by  Clean  Planet  has  now  nearly  reached  the  point  of  practical  use  as  a next-generation  clean  energy  source.  The  company  will  continue  to  work  on  realizing sustainable  social  infrastructure  by  distributing  “New  Hydrogen  Energy”  globally  as  a  new type of clean energy for a CO2-free world.
Miura Co., Ltd. Company Profile
Representative: Daisuke Miyauchi, President and CEO
Head Office: 7 Horie, Matsuyama, Ehime, Japan
Establishment: May 1959
Capital: ¥9.544 billion (as of March 31, 2019)
Number of Employees: 5,690 (consolidated), 3,090 (non-consolidated) (as of March 2019)
Business Areas: Production, sale, and maintenance of boilers and related devices
Clean Planet Inc. Company Profile

Representative: Hideki Yoshino, President and CEO
Head Office: 1-2-3 Kaigan, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Establishment: September 2012
Capital: ¥704.1 million [plus, Capital Surplus of ¥598.6 million]
(as of May 15, 2019)
Number of Employees: 5 (as of May 2019)
Business Areas: Research, development, and sales of products utilizing clean energy technologies
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