E-Cat Was Introduced 10 Years Ago Today

Today, January 14th, 2020 is the 10 year anniversary of the press conference held in Bologna, Italy, in which Andrea Rossi and Sergio Focardi introduced the E-Cat to the world.

Today Andrea Rossi posted this comment on the Journal of Nuclear Physics:

Andrea Rossi
January 14, 2021 at 5:14 AM
Mike Phalen:
Thank you and all our Readers for your attention to the hard work of the great Team of the E-Cat !
Actually, we spent ten hard years, never giving up, but we would repeat everything we made.
Warmest Regards,

Here are videos from the event (in Italian):

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Rossi on E-Cat SKL Plant: “I am Using it”

I have asked Andrea Rossi some questions this week on the Journal of Nuclear Physics about how the work on the E-Cat SKL plant that he and his team are building, and which he has stated will be presented in a public demonstration this year.

He has answered that the plant is operating ‘very well’, and when I asked how close its performance was to being acceptable, he replied, “I think we are very close.”

This sounded like good news to me, so I followed up with another question today:

Frank Acland
January 8, 2021 at 10:41 AM
Dear Andrea,

Your comments about the SKL plant sound encouraging. What remains to be done in order for it to be ready?

His response:

Andrea Rossi
January 8, 2021 at 12:49 PM
Frank Acland:
I am using it. When I will feel ready to make the presentation, I will make it. Need more experience.
Warm Regards,

All these responses lead me to believe that the plant has been built, and that it is operating in an acceptable way, which I think is very good news, and I believe bodes well for the public presentation.

Rossi has stated that they are working towards a specific deadline, and that even though it has not been made public, they have a date in mind for the presentation, all being well.

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Rossi: E-Cat SKL Can Help Hydrogen Economy

There were some comments poste yesterday by Andrea Rossi on the Journal of Nuclear Physics regarding a goal of his to use the E-Cat SKL to assist with the production of hydrogen.

Here are some of his statements:

January 6, 2021 at 9:18 AM
Dr Rossi,
Will the Ecat be able to supply energy to the hydrogen production plants ? If yes, the hydrogen economy could be enormously accelerated.

Andrea Rossi
January 6, 2021 at 10:00 AM
Yes: that is, I think, one of the main targest we have to focus on.
Warm Regards,

Andrea Rossi
January 6, 2021 at 3:57 PM
Gerard McEk:
There is a strong pressing in the world toward the use of hydrogen as a universal fuel. The Ecat could allow the electrilysis of water at an extremely low price. This is why it is important as a target.

Andrea Rossi
January 6, 2021 at 5:27 PM
Calle H:
There is a strong and world shared pressing on the extended use of hydrogen. I think to give to this powerful wave a tool that can resolve a big problem can help strategically the eventual development . I did not say this is the sole target. I think this is a strategically important target. Not necessary, but important. th
That’s all.
Warm Regards,

Hydrogen fuel cells are seen as one of the chief ways that energy can be produced without carbon emissions, but the problem is that production of hydrogen itself is often carbon-free, as natural gas is a common source of hydrogen. If, as Rossi asserts above, that the E-Cat can be used to produce hydrogen extremely cheaply (via elctrolysis) then it would seem to be a natural solution to this problem.

Of course, there is the question of why use the E-Cat to make hydrogen to make electricity, when the E-Cat makes electricity by itself? Maybe the rationale is that hydrogen fuel cells are already mature technology, approved for use in transportation, while the E-Cat is brand new technology and it would take time and effort to get it approved to be an on-board electricity source for vehicles.

Also, the phrase he uses – “A powerful ally is better that a powerful rival” – could mean that Rossi already has a deal with a partner who produces hydrogen, and this is part of his commercial strategy.

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E-Cat: Vacuum Energy and Ball Lightning

We have seen an interesting evolution of the way which Andrea Rossi describes the physics of the E-Cat over the years. Having rejected the LENR label, he is now in an equally controversial world in which he describes the energy generated by the E-Cat as coming from the vacuum of space. It seems that most physicists do not believe that it is possible to tap the vacuum to generate power for practical purposes.

The physics and mathematics of Rossi’s recently updated paper is big challenge for me to understand, so I was quite pleased when he posted the following comment which I think serves as a summary that is a little more digestible to a non-physicist like myself.

Andrea Rossi
January 1, 2021 at 3:32 PM
Raffaele Bongo,
The hypothesis presented on the Researchgate paper are based on two important points: the first one is the acceptance of a realistic electron model, while the second one is an extended electro-dynamics wherein the Lorenz gauge condition can be removed (see the cited bibliography).
In this extended electrodynamics you can create scalar charge waves in the Vacuum. Combining the Gauss Law with the generalized pointing vector equation arises the possibility of a long-range interaction that allows an energy-matter transfer from positive to negative charged particles without any violation of energy conservation law. We think that it is a realistic conjecture that the energy lost by nuclei/positive charge is promptly replenished by their interaction with the Vacuum fluctuation.

1-Are there differences in energy potentials in a Vacuum?
Yes, according to Extended Electrodynamics you can even create charge/current waves in the Vacuum. The electron itself is a current ring in the Vacuum!

2- Is the energy of a vacuum greater than that of matter?
I do not know but many authors believe that Vacuum energy is far greater than nuclear energy (eq. 17 of Quantum vacuum energy density and unifying perspectives between gravity and quantum behaviour of matter)

3- Do you think that Vacuum energy can be the fuel for the “mysterious engine” that accelerates the expansion of the universe?
Warm Regards,

The idea that vacuum energy could be far greater than nuclear energy is fascinating, an may represent an epochal leap in technology if it turns out to be true. We have to wait for the presentation of E-Cat to be more sure of this.

Ball lightning is another topic that some have considered connected with LENR/Cold Fusion/Condensed Matter phenomena, and I though it was interesting to see Rossi’s response to a question posed on the Journal of Nuclear Physics by Gerard McEk on the topic:

Q: 2. Do you think that the plasma sphere in the Ecat is (strongly?) related to ball lightning?

AR: 2-yes

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Welcome to 2021: Will it be the Year of the E-Cat SKL?

Happy New Year to all ECW readers! I am sure that many people will realize thatJanuary 2021 marks ten years since Andrea Rossi and Sergio Focardi first introduced the E-Cat to the world in a famous press conference/demonstration held in Bologna.

Here we are 10 years later an a lot of water has passed under the bridge, with no commercial breakthrough, but a lot of interesting events and developments. Sadly, Professor Focardi passed away in 2012 without seeing his work with Rossi come to a public fruition. Andrea Rossi, however, continues his efforts to bring forward an E-Cat as a clean and efficient energy production technology.

Rossi has promised that this year he will make a public presentation of the electricity generating E-Cat SKL, which is claimed to be a much more advanced E-Cat, compared to the heater that was presented in January 2011.

After ten years, interest in Rossi and his technology has waxed and waned, largely depending on public events which have been rather few and far between. I am sure that many who were excited by the E-Cat’s first announcement have lost interest when nothing concrete has appeared that can be used by the public.

Still, I think there is still a core of enthusiasts who are still holding faith that the E-Cat, and/or other related technologies will eventually break out and make a major impact on the world. I have been patiently waiting for this to happen, and believe it will at some point. There are no guarantees, of course, and I think we need to keep on an even keel. I do hope that the public presentation will take place this year. Knowing Andrea Rossi, he will be working to the maximum of his capacity to make sure it is as perfect as he can get it before he lifts the curtain.

I plan to be here for the duration. Thanks to all readers for your continued interest and contributions here. I wish all a very happy New Year.

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Korean Fusion Project Announces World Record Operation for a Fusion Reactor

An article on the Phys.org site reports that the South Korean fusion project The Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) has broken a world record for the operation of a fusion reactor.


KSTAR announced that it had been able to operate their Tokama for 20 seconds at temperatures of over 100 million degrees. Until now, no fusion reactor of this kind has been able to sustain such temperatures beyond 10 seconds.

Director of KSTAR Si-Woo Yoon made this comment on the achievement:

“The technologies required for long operations of 100 million- plasma are the key to the realization of fusion energy, and the KSTAR’s success in maintaining the high-temperature plasma for 20 seconds will be an important turning point in the race for securing the technologies for the long high-performance plasma operation, a critical component of a commercial nuclear fusion reactor in the future.”

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PDF of Revised Rossi Paper “E-Cat SK and long-range particle interactions”

There have been a number of people reporting difficulty in accessing the updated version of Andrea Rossi’s paper “E-Cat SK and long-range particle interactions” from the ResearchGate page where it has been posted.

I was able to download a version myself, so I am uploading it here, hopefully it will not cause any problems for people.



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‘Major Revision’ Published of Andrea Rossi’s Paper “E-Cat SK and Long Range Particle Interactions”

Thanks to Guest for sharing about the following:

Andrea Rossi’s Paper E-Cat SK and long-range particle interactions has been updated: The Premise Reads: “This is a major revision made in December 24 2020 of the original pre-print”

Here is the Abstract of the revised paper:

Some theoretical frameworks that explore the possible formation of dense exotic
electron clusters in the E-Cat SK are presented. Some considerations on the probable role of Casimir, Aharonov-Bohm, and collective effects in the formation of such structures are proposed. A relativistic interaction Lagrangian, based on a pure electromagnetic electron model, that suggests the possible existence of very low entropy charge aggregates and that highlights the primary role of the electromagnetic potentials in these clusters is presented. The formation of these cluster may be associated to a localized Vacuum polarization generated by a rapid radial charge displacement. The
formation of these dense electron clusters are introduced as a probable precursor for
the formation of proton-electron aggregates at pico-metric scale, stressing the importance of evaluating the plausibility of special electron-nucleon interactions, as already suggested in [22]. An observed isotopic dependence of a particular spectral line in the visible range of E-Cat plasma spectrum seems to confirm the presence of a specific proton-electron interaction at electron Compton wavelength scale.

For comparison, this is the abstract of the original paper that was published in January 2019:

Some theoretical frameworks that explore the possible formation of dense exotic electron clusters in E-Cat SK are presented. Some considerations on the probable role of Casimir, Aharonov-Bohm and vacuum polarization eects in the formation of such structures are proposed. Dense electron clusters are introduced as a probable precursor for the formation of proton-electron aggregates at pico-metric scale, stressing the importance of evaluating the plausibility of special electron-nucleon interactions, as already suggested in [14]. An observed isotopic dependence of a particular spectral line in the visible range of E-Cat plasma spectrum seems to confirm the presence of a specific proton-electron interaction at electron Compton wavelength scale.

It will take some time and work to compare both versions of the paper, and to understand the new information.

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Rossi: 100 E-Cat SKL Units Have Been Combined

Some questions on the Journal of Nuclear Physics today give an indication of some of the work that Andrea Rossi and his team are involved in at the moment.

E. Hergen
December 21, 2020 at 7:41 AM
Dear Mr. Rossi,

Does the test agency test a protopype of an industrial reactor?
What is the power of this reactor for testing?

Andrea Rossi
December 21, 2020 at 9:41 AM
We are dealing with an industrial assembly of modules, changing power.
Warm Regards,

E. Hergen
December 21, 2020 at 1:48 PM
Dear Mr. Rossi,
thank you for your answer. One follow up question:
What is the maximum number of modules you combined together up to now?

Andrea Rossi
December 21, 2020 at 6:38 PM
Warm Regards,

This is apparently the industrial plant that Rossi and his team is currently building, which he has stated would be presented at the public demonstration next year. I suppose it could be the case that only part of the plant has been built so far, and the final version would be more than 100 SKLs.

Rick 57 followed up with a question about the controller for this plant:

Rick 57
December 22, 2020 at 5:56 AM
Dear Andrea,

related to your recent answer to Hergen, are you using just a single controller for all or each E-Cat has its own ?

Andrea Rossi
December 22, 2020 at 7:21 AM
Rick 57:
We have a single controller,
Warm Regards,

And I posted my own follow-up:

Frank Acland
December 22, 2020 at 3:54 AM
Dear Andrea,

Interesting to learn you have combined 100 modules together so far. In your testing, has this combination of E-Cat SKLs worked as you have hoped?

Andrea Rossi
December 22, 2020 at 7:22 AM
Frank Acland:
Merry Christmas to you and your family,

It does sound like a lot of progress has been made of late. They must feel quite confident about the quality and operation of individual SKLs if they are now combining multiple units The fact that they can actually build 100 SKLs is quite impressive and indicates that they have a good manufacturing setup in place. It’s going to be interesting to eventually see the final product.

Rossi: 100 E-Cat SKL Units Have Been Combined

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Q&As Regarding E-Cat SKL Certification

Here is an interesting set of questions and answers posted today on the Journal of Nuclear Physics dealing with the certification process for the E-Cat SKL.

Mark U
December 20, 2020 at 8:49 PM
Dear Andrea,

Greetings from Canada!
I have some nosy questions for you about the ongoing Ecat SKL certification, if your are able to answer:

1) Does the certification agency still possess an Ecat SKL on their own premises for testing?
2) How often do they come to visit your premises, or you theirs?
3) How often are you in communication with them via video conference or phone?
4) What are the issues most discussed?
5) Have they yet asked for particular changes in order to conform to certification standard?
6) Are you as confident as ever that the Ecat SKL will be successfully certified, probably by Spring 2021?
7) Will you continue to work with the same agency – since they are already familiar with the Ecat – as the Ecat undergoes minor changes before it is ready for mass manufacturing for industrial use?
8) Is the same agency likely to do the certification for a later domestic version?

Andrea Rossi
December 21, 2020 at 5:26 AM
Mark U:
1- No, the test is made in our premises
2- many times
3- many times
4- safety
5- yes
6- yes
7- maybe
8- maybe
A blessed Christmas also to you and your family,
Warm Regards,

It looks like the certification going on now is regards to safety. Rossi has state that they are building an industrial plant, so that would be necessary to obtain before putting them on the market. I would assume both parties are under NDA regarding this process at the moment, so all we have to go on are Rossi’s own comments. It’s not surprising to me that the E-Cat has not yet been tested outside Leonardo’s premises, as we know how protective Andrea Rossi is of his invention. It is interesting to me that here Rossi seems confident of certification by Spring 2021, we’ll have to see how that plays out.

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