Rossi: Energy = Information Density

Andrea Rossi posted an unusual comment on the Journal of Nuclear Physics recently in response to a question about what he considers a definition of energy:

Norma
October 17, 2020 at 4:58 AM
Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
After your paper
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
how would you describe the term “energy”, like “energy =…” ?

Andrea Rossi
October 17, 2020 at 5:06 AM
Norma:
Energy = information density in the space-time
Warm Regards,
A.R.

I followed up with a question:

Frank Acland
October 17, 2020 at 9:03 PM

Dear Andrea,

A standard definition of energy is “the capacity for doing work”. Today you gave a definition of energy as: “information density in the space-time”.

Can you explain why you have such a different definition of energy than is normal?

His response:

Andrea Rossi
October 18, 2020 at 2:42 AM
Frank Acland:
“capacity for doing work” is a definition of an attribute, not of the intrinsic being. It is like to say that the definition of a car is ” capacity to move “: it is not a definition of a car, it is an atrribute of it.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

I think this is more of a philosophical issue than a practical one, and really has no bearing on whether the E-Cat SKL works well or not, but it may be an indication of how Rossi is thinking about his work these days. When he speaks of energy in terms of information density, it may reflect his approach to working with the E-Cat where it seems that the alogrithms of his control systems play a very important role.

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Important New Aspect of E-Cats (Gerard McEk)

The following post has been submitted by Gerard McEk.

Many of you may have missed my last dialogue with Andrea Rossi, which was the following:

Gerard McEk
October 12, 2020 at 4:53 AM
Dear Andrea,
In Jan. 12 2020 the following was asked:
“Nils Fryklund
January 12, 2020 at 5:59 AM
Dear Andrea!
Some questions about E-catSK, 22kW, which was been installed at a customer 19 november 2018:
1. Is it still giving 22kW at the customer?
2. Is the customer satisfied or has there been much problems?
3. How much fuel powder weight do you guess it has consumed?
Best regards
Nils Fryklund“
————————————————
And this was your answer:
“Andrea Rossi
January 12, 2020 at 10:31 AM
Nils Fryklund:
1- yes
2- satisfied
3- still the original charge
Warm Regards,
A.R.”
May I ask it the same questions again, what is your reply now, 3//4 of a year later? 1,2,3 same answers
4. I assume that the principles of the SK do not dramatically differ from the Ecat SKL. Can similar operation times be expected of the SKL? yes
5. Obviously the operational time does not only depend on the ‘fuel’ or charge but maybe also on wear and tear of components. But only looking to the ‘fuel’: Have you ever ran a SKL so long that the ‘fuel’ was exhausted? no
6. When that happens, is then the fuel a. exhausted or b. saturated or c. something else t.b.d.
Thank you for replying on our questions!
Kind regards, Gerard

I have printed Andrea’s answers to my questions in bold.

Please realize that these are quite remarkable answers!

Just to summarize:
There is a 20 kW SK reactor (producing heat) already running for nearly 2 years without recharging!

Also important:
Andrea does not know if and when it runs out of fuel and also not what the cause would be, so it seems!

Further, he agrees that the SK and the SKL are based on the same principle, in other words:
Andrea seems to have invented a perpetuum mobile, because the SKL can generate its own input energy and deliver much more!

‘Perpetuum mobile?’ you will ask. But Andrea has said that the energy may come from electrons that change to a new state with a lower enthalpy (into these ‘pico-metric aggregates’ as he calls them in his paper on ResearchGate). But it is not clear what happens with these aggregates. Wouldn’t they saturate the reactor after a while? How much energy is being released by this anyway? Would the energy density be similar to nuclear energy? My feeling is that it would be much less. And Andrea said it is not nuclear. So where does it come from? Some suggested Zero Point energy or Vacuum energy. Maybe it comes from there, but I have some doubts.

Nevertheless that energy should come from somewhere and I believe that Andrea does not really know where it comes from. I think he does also not know if the ‘fuel’ of the SKL would ever saturate or exhaust at all. If the Ecat SKLe is indeed confirmed, Physics is on the brink of a revolution that is so gigantic that nobody can comprehend right now!

I am really very interested to see how the scientific community reacts when the Ecat SKL comes on the market. And what interests me even more is the ‘new physics’ that eventually will explain this phenomenon. I certainly look forward to that.

Gerard McEk

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E-Cat Range Extension for Electric Vehicles (Peter Wolstenholme)

The following article has been submitted by ECW reader Peter Wolstenolme.

E-Cat Range Extension for Electric Vehicles

Peter Wolstenholme

October 2020.

There seems to be quite some confusion about this issue, so here are some calculations. The idea is to install a couple of E-Cat SKL units in a motor vehicle, and I have taken the Tesla Model 3, with the smaller 50 kWh battery, as an example. If I were to define the control software I should use up one E-cat rather more than the other, after first installation, so that only one runs out of power (or fails for some reason) at any time, and the car can be driven for a while until a replacement unit is installed. Let us assume that each E-Cat can provide 5 kW of electrical power.

The motor power of a Tesla 3 is over 200 kW, but we must realise that this can not be the average. That load would drain the battery in 15 minutes, or less. As the range is quoted at 220 miles (350 km) then we might assume that, if driving rather fast at an average 75 mph( 120 kph) the battery would run out after, say, 2h. 30 min. Thus a practical range might be 300 km ( 190 miles). This implies that the average power consumption is 20 kW.

Now consider a trip with the E-cats installed. One might drive for a couple of hours between a few pauses for coffee, meals or other reasons, and a long trip might involve 2 hours of such breaks and 7 hours of actual driving. If the battery is fully charged at the start, with 50 kWh, the E-cats will add 20 kWh to this during the pauses, and will drop the net consumption down to 10 kW while moving. So 7 x 10 = 70 kWh will be used, but 50 + 20 = 70 kWh will be available.

The range would be 120 x 7 = 840 km (525 miles). With care, and at a lower cruising speed, one might make Calais to Aix-en-Provence in one such day. Although a similar performance can be achieved without the E-cat if Tesla chargers are ideally located along one’s route, and always available, the E-Cats would greatly simplify planning for long journeys and of course the larger 75 kWh battery option would not make sense. Similar calculations can be performed for other models and for other E-Cat power assumptions. Furthermore, a planning error which manages to fully drain the battery can be fixed by a 15 minute pause, and a drive at low speed to a convenient resting place. No need for the breakdown truck!

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Rossi’s Business Strategy for E-Cat is ‘Decided’

I asked Andrea Rossi today on the Journal of Nuclear Physics what the status of his business plan was, and followed up with some further questions:

Andrea Rossi
October 9, 2020 at 8:38 AM
Frank Acland:
The business plan is decided, now we are waiting for the readiness of the Ecat.
Warm Regards,
Andrea Rossi

Frank Acland
October 9, 2020 at 9:23 AM
Dear Andrea,

When you mention the readiness of the E-Cat, do you mean:

1. It needs refinement to improve its operation
2. It needs further long-term testing
3. You are building a new model
4. Something else

Andrea Rossi
October 9, 2020 at 10:59 AM
Frank Acland:
2
Warm Regards,
A.R.

Frank Acland
October 9, 2020 at 3:22 PM
Dear Andrea,

In general terms, which of these approaches would most accurately characterize your business strategy:

1. Focused, working with select partners in narrow range of applications, limited geographical reach.
2. Broad ranging, trying to build market share quickly across multiple industries in many countries.
3. Something in the middle of the above two options.

Andrea Rossi
October 9, 2020 at 4:30 PM
Frank Acland:
2
Warm Regards,
A.R.

I was a little surprised with his answer to my last question, as it would seem to be the most difficult way to introduce a new product, requiring substantial financial, technical and logistical resources. But if the E-Cat SKL is all that Rossi has been describing it to be, then I suppose it would be considered by some as an opportunity of a lifetime to get involved with.

Regarding the length of time that long term testing will take, Rossi has stated that it is out of his control. Certainly anyone who is going to be marketing E-Cat technology will want to know about its performance over time, and I think even Andrea Rossi doesn’t know that yet.

NASA Team Publishes New Paper: “Transmutations Observed from Pressure Cycling Palladium Silver Metals with Deuterium Gas”

Thanks to Jonas Matuzas for posting a link to an article published on the Science Direct website on October 2, 2020.

Link:

Title: “Transmutations observed from pressure cycling palladium silver metals with deuterium gas”

Authors: Most of the authors are listed as working at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland Ohio, along with some at private companies.

Gustave C.Fralick (NASA) Robert C.Hendricks (NASA) Wayne D.Jennings (HX5,LLC) Theresa L.Benyo (NASA) Frederick W. VanKeuls (HX5,LLC) David L.Ellis (NASA) Bruce M.Steinetz (NASA) Lawrence P. Forsley (JWK Corporation) Carl E. Sandifer II (NASA)

Abstract:

“Hydrogen, deuterium, and helium gases were separately cycled through a Johnson-Matthey purifier containing coiled palladium silver alloy tubing: Pd25Ag (75 wt% Pd and 25 wt% Ag). During the cycling of D2 gas, evidence of anomalous heat production was observed. However, during the cycling of H2 and He, very little (H2) or no (He) unusual heat events were observed. After cycling the D2 gas through the coiled tubing for several months, Pd25Ag samples showed an increase in Cu and Fe compared with the amounts in unexposed Pd25Ag. Chromium, manganese, and zinc were detected in gas-cycled Pd25Ag samples, whereas they were not detected in unexposed Pd25Ag samples. In particular, Zn was present in the gas-cycled Pd25Ag material in larger quantities than either Cr or Mn. Although a small amount of Cu was present in the Pd25Ag coil before the D2 gas cycling, 7 times more was present after the cycling. Multiple material characterization techniques were used to obtain both pre-test and post-test elemental composition. The results indicate that novel post-test elements, primarily on the surface, were created by unknown nuclear mechanisms at low energy.”

The full article is not available for free, but can be purchased through links at the site linked to above.

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Rossi: Third Party Test Scheduled for this Week with Another ‘Partner’

Andrea Rossi commented on the Journal of Nuclear Physics that this weekend there was no third party testing going on, but that another “important” test would be taking place this week in his lab. I asked him whether this would be the third party test by the certifying agency that he said has been scheduled, but he replied, “No, it is with a Partner.”

It sounds to me like he is inviting the various parties with whom he did Skype demonstrations over the last few months to come in and do hands-on testing. Presumably he and they feel it is safe to do so. One cannot help but wonder how many such visits he will now have, how many potential partners are involved, and which industries they might represent.

There could be wisdom in a multi-pronged strategy from a business perspective. Rossi has stated that he does not plan to do exclusive deals. If he can open up his technology to multiple companies and industries at once, assuming the E-Cat SKL is all he has described it to be, there could be a widespread adoption of the technology all at once, making a somewhat level playing field for all involved. This could lead to a kind of ‘goldrush effect’, with no one wanting to be left out of a potential technological revolution.

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Rossi: E-Cat to be Certified for Both Industrial and Household Use

There is an interesting Q&A on the Journal of Nuclear Physics today regarding the scope of the certification for the E-Cat SKL testing that Andrea Rossi has said has been scheduled.

Mason asked:

A few days ago, you said that the certification testing has been scheduled. As such, it seems right that the protocols have been agreed to with the certifying agency, otherwise what is the point of scheduling the testing.

Logic says this mean that the purpose and goal of the certification has been defined. If this is so, are you able to share whether the certification is for industrial use, household use, or both?

Andrea Rossi replied:

Andrea Rossi
September 26, 2020 at 6:29 AM
Mason:
Both.
Thank you for your kind wishes,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

In the early days of the E-Cat, Rossi had been focusing only on industrial applications, he said because he believed that the product would pose safety concerns in domestic applications. This was when the E-Cat was designed primarily as a heater.

However the development of the E-Cat SKL seems to have changed all that, since it is now primarily a stand-alone electricity generator. Rossi has stated that there has never been any dangerous radiation been detected from the SKL, so maybe he feels there are not significant safety concerns that would preclude it from being used in homes.

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First Third Party Test Successful, Certifying Agency Testing Scheduled

Apart from providing information on things he considers confidential, I think Andrea Rossi is quite open about what is going on in the story of the E-Cat, it’s just that he prefers to provide information by answering questions with short answers, rather than coming out and stating what is going on.

We have learned that a third party representing a potential business partner had visited his lab to do hands-on-testing (with their own instruments). According to this Q&A the test went well and has now concluded

Rick 57
September 23, 2020 at 3:54 AM
Dear Andrea,

a few questions, if I can:
– The important test planned last Friday has been successful ?
– Can you tell us a little bit more about it ?
– By when do you expect the tests with your partner will be completed ?

Andrea Rossi
September 23, 2020 at 9:30 AM
Rick 57:
1- yes
2- no
3- with that specific partner the tests have already been completed
We have other to make.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

I followed up with a question about the next round of testing. Rossi has stated that an entity that certifies products will be coming to test the E-Cat SKL, and that the report of this test will be made public at some point.

Frank Acland
September 23, 2020 at 10:13 AM
Dear Andrea,

Has the test with the certifying company been scheduled yet?

Andrea Rossi
September 23, 2020 at 1:19 PM
Frank Acland:
Yes.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

I do trust, based on various experiences with him over the years, that Rossi is giving a true account of events (albeit without much detail). To me this is all good news. If the E-Cat is working well, and outsiders are now getting to see that first-hand, I think that bodes well for the future of this technology, and that in time there will be a public revelation of what has been going on behind closed doors for so long.

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Rossi: E-Cat SKL Tester is Potential Manufacturing Partner

Naturally, many people following the reports of Andrea Rossi about the third party testers who he says is currently testing the E-Cat SKL in his lab, are wondering which company or organization they are from.

Regarding this identity, Rossi has stated that it will only be revealed when both he and they are in agreement about making the disclosure. But he has given some information about some of the characteristics of this group. I asked couple of questions today on the Journal of Nuclear Physics about them.

Frank Acland
September 20, 2020 at 8:48 AM
Dear Andrea,

Is the third party currently testing the SKL a potential manufacturer of the E-Cat SKL?

Andrea Rossi
September 20, 2020 at 11:50 AM
Frank Acland:
Yes
Warm Regards
A.R.

Frank Acland
September 20, 2020 at 12:33 PM
Dear Andrea,

Is the current third party tester an entity that is already established with the ability to mass-produce products?

Andrea Rossi
September 20, 2020 at 2:14 PM
Frank Acland:
Yes,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

I do think that this is quite encouraging information for those who are hoping that the E-Cat can be commercialized. If the company is already involved in mass production, they should have the technology and expertise that Rossi/Leonardo really need to get E-Cats out there, rather than having to start from scratch and build a manufacturing base.

If, as Rossi says, the E-Cat SKL has so far performed well during the current testing regimen, it will surely have opened the testers’ eyes to the potential of the product, and I would guess they will be very interested in finalizing a deal with Rossi/Leonardo.

It could be a delicate negotiation, however, knowing Rossi’s famous protective attitude regarding the E-Cat’s secrets, and his desire to have control over the destiny of his invention. I do think, however, that Rossi will be wanting to make a deal. He is seventy years old now, and I am sure he wants to see his technology proliferate widely during his working lifetime. It will be interesting to see how this all plays out. Rossi is still saying that he believes there will be a public presentation of the SKL in 2020, and maybe by then we will have a better idea of who this mystery partner is.

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‘Important’ E-Cat SKL Test Scheduled for Today

Andrea Rossi has reported that today, September 18, 2020, there is an important test scheduled with the testers who are currently visiting his lab at an undisclosed location in Europe.

So far, he says that the testing has gone ‘well’, and that the mood of the testers is ‘positive’. On the Journal of Nuclear Physics, Bill Conley asked some questions about the testing that has been done so far:

Bill Conley
September 17, 2020 at 9:32 AM
Andrea,

I’m very encouraged by the current testing going on in your lab and wish you continued success with them. A few questions if you can:

1) Do the current 3rd Party tests include the replication of tests they previously viewed remotely via Skype?
2) If so, did the 3rd Party bring their own instruments to perform these tests?
3) If so, have the results of the remote and in-person tests been consistent so far?
4) Do any of these tests involve examination of the reactor core before and after operation (or will it remain sealed)?

Andrea Rossi
September 17, 2020 at 11:58 AM
1- yes
2- yes
3- yes
4- no
Warm Regards,
A.R.

So, according to Rossi, these testers have previously seen the E-Cat SKL via Skype video conferencing, and what they are seeing now first hand is confirming that performance, which of course is very important, since it would be much harder to fake a test with people who are doing hands-on testing with their own instruments.

Now what further testing could be deemed by Rossi to be so important is unclear this point. Maybe the visitors will be trying to do some tests of their own, that Rossi himself had not done.

Robert Dorr today asked about the response of the testers to the things they have been witnessing:

Robert Dorr
September 17, 2020 at 9:33 PM
Dear Andrea,

I understand that the people doing the test must be a combination of scientist and/or engineer. With respect that they have a scientific background, before the test began, I would think that they must have been a bit skeptical that your device would work as well as you had described. During the test have they expressed their surprise that, yes indeed, it does work just as you indicated? Have they ever expressed amazement that someone has been able to construct such a device? People, including myself, are getting very excited with your success so far. Keep up your fantastic work, I have a feeling you will be totally successful.

Sincerely,

Robert Dorr

Andrea Rossi
September 18, 2020 at 3:27 AM
Robert Dorr:
I’d say yes to your questions, that make sense.
Thanks for the kind sustain,
Warm Regards,
A.R.

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