Gullström Critiques Charge Cluster Theory

The following comment was posted by Mats Lewan on this thread.

Here’s a comment I received from Carl-Oscar Gullström who is collaborating with Rossi on a theory for Rossi’s LENR effect.

I contacted him since I know how important it is to have the complete mathematical and theoretical picture as a basis when discussing hypotheses, and since I know that Gullström has an impressive intuitive and mathematical understanding of particle and nuclear physics.

He told me that he had watched the entire MFMP video above and that he found the observations interesting. Here are his comments:

“The problem with the CC theory and other beyond normal electromagnetic theories is that it lacks a link to the strong force.

The thing is that the strong force has always been beyond the EM by definition and in many aspects the beyond EM theories I’ve seen in LENR only reproduces features of the strong force.

What happens could be summarized in these short sentences: Interaction with the electron is done from the charge and magnetic moment which give rise to photon exchange interaction (EM). However the electron also has a mass, which implies that scalar interaction is possible and for electron-nucleon interaction this is carried by the scalar exchange particle sigma.

To come back to the CC cluster, the observations that MFMP showed in their recent videos are within what sigma_I=2 exchange theories would predict, while the EM based CC theories has a problem with the strong force phenomena i.e. the absence of gamma radiation. First the shielding that would be needed from a charge cluster is that only 1/10^10 gammas would escape. The electron density is not enough for this type of shielding. One can compare with lead where the electron density actually is somewhat the same, and a cm of lead only shields about 10^3-10^5 of gammas.

Even if the CC could shield gamma in an unknown super effective way they also have the problem with production of long-lived radioactive nuclides. Basically without any special rule on fusion except that the energy is there, stable nuclides would be dominant but also radioactive nuclides with half-life of seconds would be produced. These nuclides would be left after the CC has disappeared but decay and cause gamma radiation. For example 59-62Cu, 64Cu, 28Al, 8Li, 6Be would be created in a H-Li-Al-Ni environment and have detectable gamma radiation when decaying.

That the CC is a consequence and not a cause of LENR could be explained by the following for the observations from MFMP. The sigma_I=2 potential would create an attractive force not only for the nucleon that is included in the nucleon transfer reaction but also for nuclides in the surroundings. The potential would then create in inbound pressure and “loaded spring” forces between the nuclides.

A consequence of this is that diamonds could be created by the inbound pressure on the surface. Also the “loaded spring force” are left there for some time and could be used to create electricity for some time by the electric potential created by the extra force between the atoms. It also drags air into the metal and creates a negative pressure inside a closed reactor. An extra note concerning carbon is that is has an enhanced sigma potential since the force minimizes either four nucleons to be put together or four alpha clusters. The C12 isotope is made of three alpha clusters.

The CC clusters are created by the sigma-electron potential where the sigma, not a photon, holds the electrons in place. I can mention another place where CC phenomena created by LENR might have been found in nature. That is the hessdalen light—a strange light phenomena observed in Norway coming from dust that is rich in the metal scandium. Scandium is a metal that is easy to use for LENR purpose since is has both odd number electrons and nucleons.”

Paul Krugman: Cold Fusion better Investment than Bitcoin

Thanks to Bob Greenyer for finding this.

Well-known American economist Paul Krugman posted this tweet on Twitter yesterday:

My guess he is being ironic here, probably thinking that ‘junk science’ cold fusion may actually have more actual value than Bitcoin, which along with other cryptocurrencies he doesn’t seem to think very highly of. Or else Krugman has been paying attention, and may think there is something of value in CF/LENR.

I do have a hope that at some point we may see a similar amount of interest in the LENR field that we are seeing at the moment with cryptocurrency.

The Protocols for Creating ASTOUNDED States in LENR Systems; or, The Beauty of Lithium Doped Nano-diamond Spheromak Emitters

The following post is reposted from the Electron Clusters Project website, written by “The Director”

There are many names that have been used over the last century to describe the organized torodial structures of electrons that Kenneth R. Shoulders referred to as EVOs (Exotic Vacuum Objects). Regardless if these self organizing clusters are referred to as strange radiation, ectons, high density charge clusters, electron clusters, micro ball lightning, compact toroids, or several other terms, they all represent the same fundamental construct. Perhaps the most well recognized term in mainstream science would be spheromaks.

These toroids composed of electrons and positively charged ions, both extracted from plasma, have been generated up to large sizes (up to a meter), compressed (down to centimeters), accelerated (to fractions of the speed of light), and annihilated (slammed into targets or each other) for multiple purposes: to induce hot fusion reactions, generate emissions such x-rays or neutrons, and to produce beam weapons with extremely high destructive power and ranges.

What’s important to note is that the research by military research facilities and hot fusion startups into the capabilities of spheromaks has typically been focused on large scale versions of these plasmoids. Although the study of these macro-scale entities is certainly a worthwhile endeavor – perhaps having already inspiring the development of exotic inertia-less propulsion drives (do a quick Google search for the Fluxliner Alien Reproduction Vehicle) – very little investigation into the tiny micro-scale varieties of spheromaks has been performed.

However, even if unknown by most individuals knowledgeable about or even “skilled in the art” of LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Reactions), extremely small spheromaks are the likely the nearly universal catalyst of what may or may not be accurately described as, “cold fusion.” Moreover, they have likely been the source of power (either extracting energy from the zero point energy field, inducing nuclear reactions, or both) in a wide variety of so called “free energy” systems. This article, however, will focus primarily on the creation and application of small scale spheromaks (closer in form factor to Shoulders EVOs) to induce an ASTOUNDED state of excess energy production described by the acronym, “Atypical Spheromak Triggering Of Unambiguous Nuclear Derived Energy Discharges.”

An explanation of what constitutes a spheromak should be provided before continuing. Mainstream scientists for decades, at least since the 1980s, have been able to produce large scale (centimeters to multiple meters in diameter) self sustaining, self stabilized toroid flows of electrons and positive ions. These “donuts” of plasma are composed of an outer sheet of electrons flowing in one direction and an interior sheet of heavier positive ions moving in the opposite direction.

The result is a self-contained structure that could be visualized, very roughly, as similar to a toroidal inductor wrapped with copper wire as used in modern electrons. In a spheromak, the fields produced are very similar to those in such a toroidal inducter: a poloidal magnetic field travels circularly in the interior ring of the torus, a secondary toroidal magnetic field (perhaps weaker) travels through the center hole exterior to the surface of the ring, and an electric field of magnetic vector potential travels through the hole as well.

These structures can be created simply by projecting a group, bunch, or beam of electrons – with adequate kinetic energy – through a gaseous medium. The linear motion of the electrons (charged particles) produces a magnetic field that manipulates the geometric positioning of the particles (electrons and positive ions) along the beam. Rings like patterns of moving electrons are formed that could be considered as a series of magnetic rings or “coil turns.” Since magnetic field lines start to focus through the interior of these rings (like in a typical solenoid coil) the ends eventually attempt to connect together, achieving the most electromagnetically stable condition. Applying an externally generated magnetic field (from a permanent magnet or electromagnet) to provide helicity can augment this process. The application of a rotating magnetic field (as used in rotamak configurations) enhances the spheromak formation process to an even greater degree.

Kenneth R. Shoulders, perhaps at the start not familiar with spheromaks, discovered a method of generating the exact same structures, except at a smaller scale with higher mass/energy densities and far greater energy efficiency. Instead of using powerful high-amperage electron beams utilizing heated thermionic emitter cathodes and then applying a series of additional externally generated magnetic fields, he used tiny sharp needle like points and extremely fast high voltage but low current pulses to produce the same geometric forms.

In a typical experiment, a sharp tip of wire serving as a cathode is provided with a short pulse of high voltage. The micro-scale explosion that takes place on the surface of the cathode produces a burst of electrons, positive ions, and metal vapor spray: all moving at high velocities. Pulled right out of this “soup” a spheromak that he described as an “Exotic Vacuum Object” was formed. Starting in 1980, he began a research project with Harold Puthoff (now a sub-contractor for the Advanced Aerospace Threat Identification Program) and Bill Church (of Church’s Fried Chicken). Shoulders quickly learned about the mysterious properties of these plasma structures. For example, they were capable of being accelerated to high speeds – fractions of the speed of light – for very low energy inputs.

Even more interestingly, they were capable of snatching up and carrying along heavy ions for no extra energy cost: somehow their intense electric fields were screening over 99.99% of their mass, inertia, and charge along with the positive ions they carried. This brings up another very important issue: electrons have like charges that should make them repel against each other. However, the electrons composing EVOs are capable of overcoming their mutual repulsion. One speculation is that electron-positron pairs cohered from the zero point energy field appear (due to the intense magnetic and electric fields present) and act as a dielectric to screen the majority of the mutual repulsive electrostatic force. Likewise, the positive ions often en-trained in the EVO (this is not always the case because this class of spheromak can be created in vacuum via pure field emission) may also screen a portion of the electric charge allowing for the electrons to draw closer to each other than would normally be possible.

Through further experimentation, Kenneth Shoulders discovered that the protons or heavy ions accelerated by EVOs could contain extremely high levels of anomalous kinetic energy. Upon striking an anode or target plate, traditional thermonuclear reactions could be produced. Powerful RF emissions, x-rays, and gamma rays were also detected upon EVO impacts, along with a burst of electrons from the destabilization of the structure. In fact, for as long as the EVOs existed, they would emit a continual, ongoing spherical “spray” of electrons with high kinetic energies (typically 2-50keV). The electrons and longitudinal waves from these starbursting electrons could be collected as electrical output. Additionally, upon an EVO impacting an extractor electrode or the anode, additional electrical power could be extracted. In some tests the electrical output collected was thirty times or more the input required to produce the EVO, not factoring the output that was not collected in the form of x-rays, light, heat, and reflected electrons.

Analysis of anode or target plate material showed characteristic track marks, pits, and borrowed holes. These marks were virtually always present and the repeating patterns and geometric forms could be instantly recognized. In the presence of these traces, the proof of EVO impacts, transmuted and isotopically shifted atoms could be found. In particular, even when transmutations were not identified, isotopic shifts (changes in the numbers of neutrons in the same element) were always present.

Moving on from simply using sharpened cathodes, Kenneth Shoulders discovered other ways of producing EVOs or what he apparently did not immediately recognize as micro-scale spheromaks. One method was applying radio frequencies to a low pressure gaseous atmosphere. The streamers that would be formed in the gas would always be lead by an EVO as they moved along. He discovered that these toroids formed more easily in heavier gases (argon, krypton, or xenon) rather than in light gases such as hydrogen. Now, years later, we know this is because spheromaks containing heavier ions have a stronger magnetic field running through the interior of the torus (which can be described as the poloidal magnetic field) which tends to reduce the toroidal magnetic field (running exterior to the body of the torus through the center hole) which magnifies the electric field running through the center hole of the torus. In short, the result is that due to the greater difference in mass between electrons and positive ions, the EVO forms more readily and is more stable. He conjectured that these structures in plasmas formed due to acceleration and bunching of electrons in the ionized conductive environment. But he didn’t stop there. His research soon brought him to the conclusion that EVOs are also formed during fracto-emission of brittle substances (more on this later in this article), the collapse of cavitation bubbles, the breakdown of dielectric electronic components such as capacitors, and many other events. Even the natural phenomenon of ball lightning – not to be mistaken by advanced aerospace vehicles virtually transforming themselves into a macro-scale spheromak – is explained by these toroidal plasmoids.

These ubiquitous structures, found everywhere, fascinated him for years and his research project continued. In 1986, after preparing a number of patent applications involving the creation and utilization of EVOs, he was informed the government was ready to slap a secrecy order on them immediately upon submission. To combat this, he summarized all of his findings in a very rare, privately published book entitled, “EV – A Tale of Discovery” that he distributed to many of his closest friends and associates.

When the government demanded the names and addresses of the individuals he mailed the book to, he simply responded by saying his computer ate the list! For some reason, they relented and allowed the patents to go through, which are now available with a simple patent database search of his name. He continued researching the technology and published a large number of writings, mostly short works of a few to a dozen pages, on his personal website. Since his death, the website has closed but the articles are still available and archived on multiple other websites. They provide a wealth of information, including his ideas on how EVOs were intimately connected to the zero point energy field, low energy nuclear reactions, the technologies utilized by UFOs, and perhaps even the structure of matter and the universe.

Now, since we have an idea of what EVOs are, let’s examine the early cold fusion work of Piantelli and Sergio Focardi utilizing nickel and hydrogen. In the 1990s, these two researchers utilized a variety of different processes to prepare the surface of bulk nickel samples to adsorb (adhere to the surface), dissociate (break apart into individual atoms), and absorb (pull into the interior of the metal lattice) molecular hydrogen. To accomplish this, they used various methods of degreasing the surface of the nickel, removing surface layers of nickel-oxide (a barrier to the desired processes mentioned above), and degassing the nickel to remove trapped oxygen and other contaminants that were present in the lattice. With extreme effort they were successful.

Upon carefully preparing a sample, placing it into a hydrogen environment, and adjusting various parameters such as pressure and temperature, they could measure high degrees of hydrogen absorption. Suddenly producing a rapid fluctuation in either the temperature or pressure would be the next step. This would produce what they described as an “excited state” in which not only excess heat was produced but the emission of radiation and charged particles. Please note that for the quantity of excess heat produced, the amount of radiation emitted was minuscule. If traditional thermonuclear fusion reactions were responsible, they would have both been irradiated to the point of death, repeatedly. But they were fine and experienced no ill effects from the relatively small, easily shielded quantities of emissions that accompanied the high magnitude of excess heat. The active fuel layer in these experiments was very thin: only a tiny quantity of the bulk nickel could be generating the heat. Nevertheless, excess heat in the range of a couple hundred watts at a coefficient of performance (meaning energy input vs. energy output) of around two to three was achieved: very good but not ASTOUNDING.

Then, a few years later, after the testing above had been completed, Andrea Rossi started his work into nickel-hydrogen cold fusion reactions. His device, called the Energy Catalyzer or E-Cat for short, in many tests seemingly produced far higher levels of output. Before disclosing the existence of his technology publicly, he asked Sergio Focardi to examine his systems, measure the inputs and outputs, check his methodologies, run the numbers, and either confirm or deny his findings. The massive excess heat – kilowatts of output with COPs in the hundreds – stunned Sergio Focardi who confirmed Andrea Rossi’s findings. The two then began collaborating together. Soon, Rossi’s blog, The Journal of Nuclear Physics, opened, and Andrea Rossi openly disclosed his findings with the world – while keeping the nature of his “catalysts” and several important industrial secrets to himself.

One of the first revelations about Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat technology to be disclosed is his usage of nickel powder with a higher surface area that Focardi and Piantelli’s bulk rod, wire, or bar. The surface area was also enhanced due to the specific type of nickel powder, which was later learned to be carbonyl nickel powder. The particles of carbonyl nickel are covered with spikes and surface protrusions. Obviously, the first benefit here is a far larger potential surface area to allow for a greater total quantity of hydrogen absorption. More hydrogen absorption would produce a denser and deeper layer of “nickel-hydride” near the surface which, due to its brittle nature, would be susceptible to fracto-emission upon breakage or fracturing. However, simply increasing the surface area wasn’t enough; Andrea Rossi obviously had many more optimizations at his disposal.

The talk going around the web for a few years now leads to the obvious conclusion that he utilized palladium, in conjunction with nickel, in his earliest systems. There is a very good reason for the usage of this element: it adsorbs, dissociates, and absorbs hydrogen extremely rapidly. Palladium can almost be considered a sponge for hydrogen. However, it has another very useful purpose which is acting as a reverse spillover catalyst when applied in small particle sizes over another metal. Nano-particles of palladium covering a larger nickel particle (perhaps one micron in size) would act as a catalyst and split the molecular hydrogen into atomic hydrogen.

The individual hydrogen atoms would then “spillover” onto the nickel to be absorbed (skipping the energy intensive adsorption and dissociation steps). By using such a catalyst, the development of a thin layer of nickel-hydride could be accelerated. The small nickel particle size combined with the catalytic action of palladium nano-islands scattered on the surface would allow for a high degree of embrittlement. This was enough to boost the excess heat output in early E-Cats far beyond what Focardi and Piantelli achieved. The fracturing of the highly embrittled layer produced a truly ASTOUNDED state that was unambiguous in his successful tests. But Andrea Rossi, constantly attempting to improve his technology, didn’t stop there.

By the time he performed his first public demonstration or shortly thereafter, I expect that he was no longer using palladium. Instead, he was using other methods to both, sometimes perhaps simultaneously, bombard his fuel with atomic hydrogen and produce spheromaks inside of his reactors to interact with his fuel. One simple method would be to have used a very hot tungsten wire, perhaps thoriated to reduce the work function, to both produce atomic hydrogen and emit electrons (some of which could form spheromaks). Since he’s admitted to using tungsten for certain applications in some of his reactors, this is certainly plausible. Yet another method of atomic hydrogen and EVO generation he has admitted to is the use of a radio frequency generator that would ionize the gaseous interior of his reactor cavity. Again, both atomic hydrogen and spheromaks would be generated. Upon a spheromak striking the embrittled fuel, fracto-emission would produce even more electrons that could form compact toroidal structures. Many cycles of fracto-emission could be produced that could result in a self sustaining mode of operation, perhaps assisted by small, continual RF input.

At some point, Andrea Rossi started using lithium, in various forms such as LiH (lithium hydride) and LiAlH4 (lithium aluminum hydride) as fuel additives mixed in with the nickel. This eliminated the need for a hydrogen tank, but it also opened the door to several other beneficial effects. For starters, lithium aluminum hydride and lithium hydride emit atomic hydrogen when they decompose. So, for a brief time before the gas recombines, the nickel in the reactor will be exposed to an “easy to absorb” form of hydrogen. This recombination process can take place quickly; perhaps the reason for ramping up the temperature of an E-Cat slowly (gradually letting out a little atomic hydrogen at a time) or cycling the lithium and hydrogen between the solid and gaseous forms. Eventually, after a sufficient quantity of hydrogen has been absorbed into the nickel, a sudden high rate change of temperature can induce fracto-emission resulting in EVO generation, nuclear reactions, and excess heat.

An additional benefit of lithium is that when applied to a metal, it lowers the “work function” or the barrier that inhibits electrons from being emitted from the metal into the environment. Simply having some of the nickel covered with a layer of lithium might augment EVO production. But Andrea Rossi thought of an even better additive, which by itself or especially doped with lithium or another appropriate agent such as boron, could lower the work function even further: nano-diamonds.

Micro or nano-scale diamonds doped with lithium, boron, or other appropriate agents can be bonded to metals such as nickel and serve as very effective electron emitters. They are actually used in cathode electron beam generators in a variety of industries. In addition to the internally generated spheromaks produced by fracto-emission, these nano-diamonds when stimulated electromagnetically, electrically, or thermionically (by heat) could project EVOs that would induce nuclear reactions. One way in which they could produce nuclear reactions would be picking up protons and accelerating them – via the anomalous acceleration effect – into the metal lattice at energy levels capable of producing classical thermonuclear fusion either with nickel or lithium atoms. Yet another would be for them to disguise themselves as “heavy electrons” (in a manner similar to muon catalyzed fusion), slip through the electron shells of various nearby materials, and induce nuclear reactions. Additionally, EVO strikes produce neutrons which could produce energy via isotopic shifting. There are also other mechanisms that have been speculated that would generate excess heat – resulting in an ASTOUNDED state.

Andrea Rossi has developed a potentially revolutionary, if further verified, technology called the E-Cat QX. What we know for a fact is that it utilizes lithium-hydrogen plasma in the very narrow diameter channel (a fraction of a millimeter wide and only a few millimeters long) of a quartz tube between two nickel electrodes. The test results – which are promising but still need reproduction by a third party – seem to indicate massive excess heat production for a tiny quantity of input. Recently, he performed a public demonstration in Sweden and the video is available on YouTube. After triggering with a high voltage DC impulse and then applying additional series of smaller amplitude frequencies, the device was able to heat up a flow of water, allegedly producing over twenty watts of thermal power (probably much more due to the calculations being very conservative) for an average input that was far less than a watt, equaling a COP in the hundreds.

I highly suspect that the E-Cat QX functions in a very similar manner to a conventional “hot fusion” spheromak generator with three major differences: a much smaller overall size, a different configuration, and the usage of extremely low work function lithium doped nano-diamonds on the nickel cathodes. Since we know he used nano-diamonds in other configurations of devices, it makes perfect sense he is using them on the electrodes of this device; otherwise, he’d need much higher voltages to generate the EVO generating discharges. With these additives on his cathode, he is able to create potentially millions of tiny nano to micro scale spheromaks with every small fluctuation of his voltage. After the first high voltage impulse ionizes the channel, establishing a condition of “abnormal glow discharge” the production of spheromaks takes place in a very efficient manner. In fact, most of the energy required for their generation likely comes from electron-positron pairs being cohered from the zero point energy field. This makes his device not only nuclear but also something even more profound and revolutionary.

He’s also likely utilizing one or more permanent magnets to either enhance the formation of the EVOs (therefore reducing the energy cost to create them) and potentially trap them in a “magnetic mirror” configuration. A well known scientific fact is that a charged particle will move away from a region of dense magnetic field lines to a zone of lower density. So, for example, a permanent magnet placed behind the cathode would push electrons off the surface towards the anode, while also providing the helicity needed for their organization into spheromaks. If in addition another magnet was placed on the opposite end behind the anode, there would exist two regions on either side of the channel with a higher density of magnetic field lines. The spheromaks created would cluster in the center of the very narrow channel in the region of lowest field density. They might exist there as individual entities or combine into a larger, yet still tiny, spheromak. Upon additional discharges, as in some hot fusion spheromak fusion arrangements, the toroids of electrons would collide in the center region. When this happens, the conditons may exist for fusion reactions between the hydrogen and lithium ions, yielding alpha particles (helium nuclei consisting of two protons) that would loose their kinetic energy upon collision with other molecules and produce heat. Other emissions may also take place that could help keep the channel ionized.

I suspect the above configuration is likely for a couple of reasons. First, I suspect he wants to protect the surface of his nickel electrodes, which may be covered with lithium doped nano-diamonds. If they were to reach temperatures anywhere close to those in the center of the tube, the diamonds would degrade and the device would stop functioning at such a low voltage. So, it may be ideal to keep the nuclear reactions taking place near the center of the quartz tube, away from the electrodes. However, there may be a mode of operation in which the electrodes play a more important role, especially if permanent magnets are not used to produce a trapping zone. Kenneth Shoulders, apparently never having tested very low work function nano-diamond emitters, claimed that he could produce more electric power from an EVO strike on his cathode than was required to produce the electron cluster to begin with. My guess is that with Rossi’s setup and specifically selected emitters, the electrical output from EVO strikes on the anode could soar! Both the power out in watts and the efficiency of the process (COP) could be far higher than in any of Kenneth Shoulders experiments. Interestingly, the power produced may be in the form of “cold electricity” as described by a series of “free energy” pioneers that have used vaguely similar configurations that would likely produce huge quantities of EVOs from an abnormal glow discharge. This “cold electricity” does not behave in the exact same manner as ordinary electricity (it seemingly has super conductive properties and doesn’t seem to be effected at all by back EMF). If Andrea Rossi hasn’t learned how to tame this form of energy, this might be an explanation for the anomalous heating in his power supply which consumes around sixty watts of active cooling. Potentially, this form of output, once fully understood, could offer some unique advantages.

From looking at the principles at work in Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat reactors, we can gain an understanding of the protocols and techniques that allow for an ASTOUNDED state to be created. However, spheromaks (again, referred to by many different names) are also involved in a multitude of other exotic technologies. One example is ultra high efficiency, apparently overunity, HHO or “Brown’s Gas” systems. Instead of using a high current and an electrolyte to produce an apparently anomalous quantity of gas compared to the power ran through the cell, ordinary water can be used with small gaps between plates or tubes – if the electrodes are conditioned to be covered with millions of tiny micro-needles! When powered with a high frequencies at appropriate voltages, these micro-needles emit discharges (obviously a form of spheromak) that generates copious quantities of HHO with anomalous properties. Moreover, cold fusion and heat production systems utilizing ultrasound or other methods of producing imploding cavitation bubbles emit spheromaks. Nikola Tesla, E.V. Gray, Moray, and a host of other researchers have been using — even sometimes if unaware — spheromaks to extract energy from the vacuum and produce nuclear reactions.

With the concepts of what’s required to achieve an ASTOUNDED state in our minds, let’s go over a quick review of the critical concepts to producing a powerful LENR effect. These guidelines will be more oriented towards Andrea Rossi’s powder based systems than the E-Cat QX, but the mechanisms at play in all of his systems are very tightly linked.

A) Utilize high surface nickel powder or very thin wire with spike covered, roughened surfaces. This will allow for more fuel material to be involved in the reactions. Carbonyl nickel is an acceptable choice. To roughen a wire or plate, sputtering with argon in a corona discharge could work.

B) Clean and degas your nickel to remove surface oxides and trapped interior gases. This is important because oxides are a barrier to hydrogen uptake and interior gases take up space in the lattice where you want the hydrogen to go.

C) Utilize some method of dissociating atomic hydrogen and embedding protons into your fuel to create a metal hydride layer: coatings of palladium nano-particles acting as spillover catalysts, hot tungsten wires, radio frequency generators, high voltage AC/DC glow discharge, release of atomic hydrogen from LiH or LiAlH4, cycles of sputtering and ion bombardment in a hydrogen corona discharge, high frequency harmonics applied to resistor heating elements, and a range of other techniques. Simply putting clean nickel into a hydrogen environment is not enough. The fuel must be bombarded with atomic hydrogen in one way or another. This creates the critical nickel-hydride layer that’s susceptible to fracto-emission.

D) Create EVOs using one of a number of different methods and have them interact with your fuel! There’s a lot of overlap with letter “C” above, but I’d especially suggest the usage of radio frequencies generators (perhaps designing your whole system as a conical resonator to achieve the ionized plasma for a lower input power), spark gaps between electrodes, direct current discharges through the fuel, and the usage of low work function elements (such as lithium) to further optimize very low work function emitters (like nano-diamonds). There are very specific processes for doping nano-diamonds with lithium or other elements in the patent literature. To be blunt, it doesn’t look as easy as just mixing everything together in a glove box and filling a reactor tube. But if properly doped and bonded with a secure contact to the nickel surface, nano-diamonds can become copious emitters of spheromaks.

E) Experiment with magnetic fields to augment and accelerate the organization of EVOs from free electrons. Try permanent magnets producing field lines cutting across your reactor in different directions: the added helicity from the “swirl” of the vector potential around the field line can help the electrons structures form strings of loops and then reconnect their ends. In particular, a three (or even four) phase solenoid or heating element wound around a reactor could not only produce a magnetic field but a twisting (rotating) magnetic field as in a mainstream “rotamak.” This could augment enhance EVO production even further.

How to enhance LENR reactions doesn’t have to be mysterious anymore. I’m not saying that there isn’t a lot of details about the physics we don’t understand, but I think with the principles in this article we can push forward to build working, powerful systems that produce ASTOUNDED states of excess heat production. Inducing LENR with spheromaks will turn “hot fusion” research programs upside down; because individuals such as Andrea Rossi will have approached the task from the opposite direction. Instead of going for large spheromaks in giant systems, he utilized smart and efficient techniques to produce copious itty bitty electron clusters.

Once this low hanging fruit is proven as valid to the world, or possibly even before, other applications of these compact toroids may be revealed. For example, the anomalous craft flying in our skies, the majority of which are likely human built craft, could be revealed to the world. I’ll be looking forward to hearing all the details about how their macro-spheromak propulsion drives work. Actually, I’ll be even more interested in learning how the drives in recovered extraterrestrial space craft worked! Extracting unlimited energy from the vacuum, screening mass, nullifying inertia, allowing for faster than light speeds (actually changing the speed of light in the local environment), spheromak technologies can open up the galaxy to mankind!

Rossi: E-CatQX Prototype Ready, Robots Not

There have been some interesting comments from Andrea Rossi today on the Journal of Nuclear Physics regarding progress on the production of the E-Cat QX.

david
January 11, 2018 at 2:46 AM
Dr Andrea Rossi:
Did you make progress from the day of the convincing demo of Stockholm on November 24 to now?
Best Regards
David

Andrea Rossi
January 11, 2018 at 5:09 AM
David:
Yes, we made a strong progress. I think now we have ready the prototype to be industrialized.
Warm Regards,

Frank Acland
January 11, 2018 at 6:49 AM
Dear Andrea,
1. Does the “prototype to be industrialized” include both the E-Cat QX and the controller?
2. Does this mean you have solved the controller overheating problems?

Andrea Rossi
January 11, 2018 at 9:26 AM
Frank Acland:
1- yes
2- yes
These two months have been dense.
Warm regards,
A.R.

Italo R.
January 11, 2018 at 9:31 AM
Dear Dr. Rossi, you have written:

“…I think now we have ready the prototype to be industrialized…”

It’s really great!

Have you already a robot working to try to build that prototype?

Andrea Rossi
January 11, 2018 at 10:03 AM
Italo R.:
Not yet. It will be not a robot, it will be a series of robots.
Warm regards,
A.R.

Having a working prototype with a working controller would be very good progress. I would imagine that a lot of work will need to be done now to get to a point where they can build the same thing with Robots. However if ABB is the partner working with Rossi, as he reports, then they will have a lot of experience and expertise to help accomplish this. Here’s a demo of how precise they are getting with their robotics:

Not Nuclear, Not Fission, Not Fusion — Tapping the Color Force (Engineer48)

The following has been posted by Engineer48

We need to understand that inside the nucleus of every atom other than H, there are 2 stores of potentially trappable energy: While the H nucleus has no type 1 proton and neutron binding energy, it still contains quark binding energy type 2 as below.

1) The redundant strong force energy that is carried and exchanged by pions inside the nucleus and that binds the protons and neutrons together.

2) The color strong force energy that is carried and exchanged by gluons inside the proton or neutron and that binds the quarks together.

The 1st energy store is what is tapped in fission and fusion reactions and atomic weapons.

The 2nd energy store is what makes up 99% of the non dark mass in the universe via m = e/c^2. Releasing it would be like a matter & anti matter reaction. Or energy availability that makes what we call nuclear energy seem like a firecracker compared to an atomic bomb.

So when you wonder where the energy release from LENR or other plasma OU systems could come from, look no further that tapping the redundant strong force proton or neutron binding energy or doing a mind blow and tapping the vast store of quark binding energy.

There is no requirement to invent new energy sources, as almost all the universe’s energy and mass are contained in the quark colour confinement strong force. This force gets stronger the further away are the quarks.

If what I think is going on, there is no bad radiation as this process is NOT NUCLEAR, NOT FISSION, NOT FUSION.

Engineer48

Commercial LENR in 2018?

It’s the last day of 2017 and a natural time to reflect back on the old year and look forward to the new. In terms of progress in the LENR field I have always thought that the most important thing is that the technology become commercialized in order to be put to use in the real world. So long as it stays forever in the laboratory it is interesting scientifically, but not of much practical use.

So has there been LENR progress in 2017? For me the answer is yes, but a big commercial breakthrough has not yet happened.

Research and Development

In terms of R&D, I think that it is very significant that Andrea Rossi has come to a point where he has settled on the E-Cat design that he wants to commercialize. For over five years he has been working with E-Cats that he was constantly working on, but which apparently were problematic performance-wise for one reason or another — and at last he seems to be satisfied with the E-Cat QX, especially after he has reached the Sigma 5 level of performance. With this decision made, he can now focusing his R&D efforts on miniaturizing the control system needed to operate the E-Cats, designing industrial-grade plants using the QX, and building the production system needed to get the benefits of economy of scale.

Commercialization

I think the most positive event that happened in 2017 for the commercialization prospects of the E-Cat this year was the settlement reached in the Rossi vs. Industrial Heat case. From all we learned from the documents produced in the court case the working relationship between the two parties was at such a low level that it’s hard to see how they could have successfully commercialized the E-Cat together. The initial contract between Rossi and IH was heavily in favor of Industrial Heat, and if Rossi had prevailed in the lawsuit, and was awarded the $89 million he sought, he would have likely been bound by the contract which gave exclusive commercial rights for the E-Cat to IH for North and South America, Russia, China and Saudi Arabia — a huge segment of the world’s economy.

In terms of E-Cat commercialization, the settlement wiped the slate clean and gave Rossi a fresh start with no restrictions on where he is able to commercialize the E-Cat. He admits now that he was naive in signing the IH contract and states that with the legal experience gained from the lawsuit he now legal team better to prepared to help him negotiate better contracts going forward. Rossi states a new partner is now on board to help him start the commercialization process.

Is the E-Cat for Real?

After nearly seven years since Rossi first went public, that’s the big question that many people are still asking. I understand that many people still have at least some level of uncertainty, if not total doubt. The Stockholm presentation did not provide the final scientific proof that the E-Cat works as claimed, because it was not an independent scientific experiment, and that was disappointing to some. I don’t think that question will be conclusively answered for most people until commercialization is achieved, but speaking for myself, despite everything taking longer than I initially expected, I am as convinced as ever of the validity of the E-Cat. This was the year that I first saw an E-Cat for myself, and from the setup I saw it was clear to me that Andrea Rossi had been hard at work developing what has turned out the be the E-Cat QX. If the measurement instrumentation used in the test that I witnessed was accurate, then he has made a very important breakthrough in terms of energy technology.

So will 2018 be the year that the E-Cat finally hits the marketplace? Andrea Rossi says that this is his hope and goal, shared by his team and partner. He stated today on the JONP: “I am optimist about the fact that in 2018 we will reach the massive industrialization phase. In these 2 months after the demo at the IVA of Stockholm we have added much progress to the Ecat QX in the direction of its industrialization.”

I do hope he is right, but since these things always seem to take longer than initially projected, I am loath to make a prediction. We will just wait and see how things play out.

Other LENR teams

Of course Andrea Rossi is not the only operator in the LENR field. There are other teams at work such as Brillouin, Clean Planet, and me356 who claim to be working towards commercialization. Brilliant Light Power does not claim to be working in LENR, but they also are active in developing what could be a significant energy technology. They have said that they hope to have some products ready for field testing in 2018. None of these has broken out commercially in 2017. Possibly 2018 may see some progress.

Holmlid, Rossi, Mills and Lack of Radiation (Optimist)

The following post was submitted as a comment on this thread.

So we have a nuclear level energy release but little or no radiation. Rossi obviously isn’t sure what is going on and thinks it might be antimatter. Mills on the other hand believes due to the lack of radiation that it must be chemical Hydrino based.

But then we have Leif Holmlid that is not speculating but has repeaded, peer-reviewed and published results proving the formation of H(0) ultra dense hydrogen. If the formation of H(0) is followed by breakage of the bond, using for example a low energy laser, this results in a split of the proton and delivers mesons and energy. This has been proven with direct measure of muons that can either cause regular muon cold fusion or decay directly to electrons. In the process the proton mass is mostly lost with the applicable energy release and as the mesons are charged and fast moving, the energy can be harvested directly to electricity. Sounds familiar?

Where Holmlid triggers the H(0) process on a flat and observable 2D surface, Rossi and Mills are burried in a 3D material providing no direct line of sigth on the process happening.

So, if Holmlid’s results are accurate, the Holmlid decay of the proton would explain the large energy release without radiation in both the Rossi and Mills experiments.

Then why are we not regarding this as the primary explanation for LENR and why are we not focusing on repeating Holmlid for further proof? It would sound strange if the three processes are totally unrelated.

Rossi’s Catalyst: Electron Clusters Light Up Christmas This Year (Hank Mills)

The following post has been submitted by Hank Mills

There’s something truly special that makes Andrea Rossi’s Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat) devices produce excess power. Speculation has raged for years about the nature of his so-called secret sauce. Every time a nugget of information is provided about a design element added to a new reactor model or some additional fuel component, hundreds of online posts are made. Yet progress towards mainstream acceptance of the technology remains dreadfully slow. I believe this may now change. I suggest that a unifying catalyst for the E-Cat has emerged that allows us to make sense of the processes taking place in his reactor, the rationale for his various fuel components (along with their sizes, properties, and composition), and the reasoning behind the various reactor designs he’s tested. The application of this knowledge could allow for a wide range of devices that not only produce energy from novel nuclear reactions but manipulate the underlying medium of the vacuum in useful ways. You may not believe in Santa Claus, but in this article I’m about to propose a phenomenological nexus that could keep Rudolph’s nose aglow, provide all the electricity needed to keep Santa’s factory humming along, and keep his sleigh soaring through sky, defying gravity.

When an adequate electrical potential is applied to a cathode in proximity to an anode, a complex series of processes, many simultaneous, take place. The result can be an accumulation of electric charge localized to a tiny region of the cathode surface, usually at a surface irregularity such as a crack, pit, or protrusion. Once a critical level of charge is accumulated, an “ecton” explosion takes place, allowing an almost fluidic stream of electrons to surge out of the cathode. These electrons exist amid a spray of metallic vapor from the “cathode spot” and positively charged gaseous ions. By a process that is not fully understood, these electrons – along with a much smaller quantity of positive ions – self organize into a structure that allows the electrons to stick together in close proximity, defying their mutual electrostatic repulsion due to their like charge. These mysterious objects have been described by scientists around the world going back at least a century. Although referred to by many different names including strange radiation, ectons, charged clusters, electron clusters, exotic vacuum objects (EVOs), charged plasmoids, and micro-ball lightning, they are truly ubiquitous in that they have been produced in an extremely wide array of circumstances in various experimental apparatuses.

One researcher in particular, Kenneth Shoulders, the author of EV – A Tale of Discovery and numerous shorter online documents, spent many years of his life investigating these objects, which he described as exotic vacuum objects or EVOs. Among many other interesting effects, he discovered that some unknown property of this high density, likely torodial structure of electrons could nullify almost its entire effective mass, along with the much higher mass of heavier positive ions trapped inside. The result is that once created, the input energy cost to accelerate an EVO from a cathode to an anode was minuscule, perhaps less than a thousandth of what would be expected. Moreover, if during the course of travel the torodial plasmoid was to interact with physical structures, truly bizarre effects would take place that defied all current scientific knowledge.

As an example, if a one micron sized EVO was made to follow an undersized channel (let’s say perhaps a tenth of a micron in diameter) between two slabs of a dielectric material such as aluminum oxide, the object would atomize the obstructing material into a liquid via a non-thermal process while boring an appropriately sized channel. The aluminum oxide slush would be rapidly ejected out of the channel along the same path as the EVO. In other cases, if an EVO carrying internal positive ions was accelerated into an appropriately configured anode, nuclear reactions could be produced by a number of different mechanisms, including the anomalous kinetic energy acquired by the heavy ions. In many of these impacts transmutation products could be identified.

From his relentless experimentation, Ken Shoulders learned that these EVOs could transform from a “white” excited state in which they emitted electrons (allowing them to be filmed in his custom-made electron pinhole camera) through many intermediate gray states to a “black” state that was for all intents and purposes, invisible. In the black state, the EVO interacted only very weakly with matter. However, with a proper stimulus in the form of an externally applied electric field or several cycles of RF frequencies, the ghostly structure could be brought back to life as a white EVO.

Eventually, Shoulders gained the experience to produce EVOs of various diameters (from hundreds of nanometers to perhaps a few tens of microns or even larger in some cases), maneuver them through the equivalent of small scale obstacle courses including right angle turns, split individual EVOs into multiple smaller units to recombine them at another location on the guidance track, and even fire them off from cathodes at frequencies of up to the megahertz range. Perhaps equally importantly, he learned how to identify the evidence of their presence – their varied but unique signatures.

Ken Shoulders found the track marks of EVOs in a wide variety of materials, including the spent fuel of LENR or cold fusion experiments. However, he was not alone in identifying strange marks left behind by these anomalous self-sustaining structures of electric charge. Other teams around the world, going back decades, had found the same fingerprint markings produced by their experiments.

Exploded wires, high current arc discharges through liquid, electrolytic cold fusion cells, plasma based abnormal glow discharge tubes, Tesla coils, electrical components pushed until dielectric breakdown, and many other apparatuses could produce these self-organizing structures. Even cavitation bubbles produced by ultrasound in a liquid have proven to create them. High voltage isn’t even always needed to create them: tracks have been discovered on the electrodes of six-volt electrolysis cells!

Since they often produce x-rays or low-level gammas when impacting metals, the remains of exploded wires or electrolytic electrodes have been placed near detectors. Up to a couple days after the initial experiment was completed, the tracks of “strange radiation” along with x-rays were found – sometimes at the distance of a meter or through barriers that would have blocked alpha or beta rays! In some experiments, magnetic materials like nickel or iron were found to trap, absorb, or at least prevent the passage of these anomalous emissions. Other materials, like aluminum, sometimes had little effect at all, allowing them to pass through. Likely, a spectrum of EVOs spanning many “gray” levels were passing through space and eventually being detected. Many others were likely lost to the environment. Everywhere this extremely intuitive and highly skilled inventor looked, the evidence of charge clusters seemed to exist. There’s no escaping their presence or effects!

The majority of energy gainful, exothermic processes within the entire range of cold fusion reactors that have been built to date are likely directly related to the initial synthesis, purposeful guidance, and resulting actions of EVOs. Andrea Rossi’s energy catalyzer models from his first powder based systems to the E-Cat QX are no exception. In each model of his reactors, he built in mechanisms – perhaps in his earliest systems unknowingly – that produced both EVOs and the conditions for them to catalyze LENR reactions. As his knowledge of what was transpiring in his reactors grew more complete, he made appropriate enhancements that increased the reaction rate or even allowed the direct production of electricity. But before any examples of such improvements can be provided, another physical phenomenon must be briefly discussed that has been fully and wholly accepted by mainstream physics: surface plasmon polaritons (SPP). I’ll effort to describe this topic in a plain and intuitive manner, which means readers will have to perform their own online research for a more comprehensive summary of the topic. But my explanation should be good enough to convey the fundamental concepts that are critical for grasping what I believe is Andrea Rossi’s now not-so-secret catalyst.

An electrically conductive metal has some number of mobile electrons that are free to move about. Without these charge carriers being able to move about, there could be no such thing as a surface plasmon polariton. Now, let’s examine each component of this potentially confusing term.

The first word, “surface” means that this phenomenon takes place on the surface of a metal. More precisely, SPPs can be found at the interface of a metal surface and a dielectric (which can be a gaseous environment, a solid, or even free space). All the action takes place just above or below the surface.

Next, at this surface is a, “plasmon” which can be very roughly conceptualized as an undulating or bobbing collection of electrons from the metal pushing up from the surface, extending above some distance, and crashing back down again below the surface. Even though the lattice of the metal is solid, these free electrons have the mobility to travel freely and slosh about like a liquid: almost like waves or ripples on a pond.

Finally, we come to the word, “polariton” which refers to how these ripples of electrons (plasmons) at the surface interact with various stimuli from the environment. If an electromagnetic wave in the form of photons (two examples of photon sources could be a laser or infrared light from a hot surface) impacts the metal-dielectric interface at the surface of the metal, the electric component of the photon imparts momentum to the free electrons creating potentially powerful ripples of electrons that spread out in all directions, rapidly dropping in magnitude.

However, there are additional ways to produce surface plasmon polaritons (couplings of plasmons and stimulus at a dielectric interface) other than the impact of photons. Electrically charged particles such as electrons, protons, or ions impacting the surface can also produce the same collective projections of electrons rolling across the surface. Likewise, SPPs can be generated on the metal-dielectric interface of a cathode pulsed with a voltage source. The whole system of the pulsating “surface plasmon” along with the source of stimulus is referred to as a pseudo-particle, hence the overall “surface plasmon polariton.” Now, since we have the word salad sorted out, we can move on!

SPPs are not necessarily EVOs; however, they are important in the creation of EVOs for multiple reasons. They facilitate the electric field amplification on a sharp tip or surface protrusion, such as the pointed wires used by Kenneth Shoulders or the large number of nano-needles found on the surface of planar electrodes in other systems. This allows for the “ecton explosion” that releases a burst of electrons, metal vapor, and ions. Furthermore, SSPs may generate the orientations and organized structures of surface plasmons which, once ejected into the internal space of a reactor from a discharging cathode, might lead to the formation of the EVO.

A good analogy could be a lump of clay on the spinning wheel of a potter. The spinning blob is not a vase or watering pot. To be transformed into a usable, functional piece of pottery, an external force (in this case the hands of the artisan) must intelligently mold and shape the raw material into the desired structure. Similarly, I believe the creator of the universe, devised a method that allows his hands – through the dynamic forces of the active vacuum or aether – to combine the undulating, patterned SPP with some number of heavier ions while shaping the plasmoid that will become the EVO.

Given the above, a reasonable thought would be that by further enhancing SPPs on a metal-dielectric interface, more “ecton” events could be triggered, and, hence, EVOs created. The good news is that there are multiple methods of enhancing SPPs.

To be best of my understanding, here are a several methods that have proven to work in mainstream optics research labs: placing surface protrusions on a planar surface that will produce a large electric field pushing the plasmon upwards, creating pits or cracks on a surface which will make the plasmon project horizontally into each side of the crevice, utilizing an array of differently sized spherical particles that will strengthen the plasmons where the particles make contact, utilizing a dielectric of higher permittivity and/or a conductor of greater conductivity, matching the size of surface irregularities (or powder sizes) to the wave length of oncoming photons to produce resonant conditions, utilizing smaller surface area wires instead of large planar surfaces to reduce dissipation rates for a giving stimulation, and setting up specific patterns of surface features with the goal of creating lenses that can focus plasmons.

But the most obvious way of enhancing the production of a SPP should be obvious: striking the material with an EVO! According to Kenneth Shoulders, in addition to producing various kinds of structural damage, the EVO can dump a massive electrical charge onto a target in an extremely short period of time, perhaps in a picosecond or less! He demonstrated that a hundred billion electrons from a single EVO of approximately one micron in diameter can be imparted during such an energetic strike.

The plasmon undulations of electrons rippling through the surface layers of the target material would be immense. Although Kenneth Shoulders, as far as I’m aware, never referred to SPPs in his writings, he elaborated on how such impacts could create self-sustaining chain reactions. He called them “wildfires.” His reasoning was straightforward. If you have an embrittled surface – such as nickel loaded with hydrogen to create a hydride layer – the kinetic damage of the strike could damage the lattice creating breaks, fractures, and cracks. The result is fracto-emission of electrons – a well-documented phenomenon in scientific literature.

However, going beyond what’s currently understood by mainstream science, he claimed that the wildfires he observed (in addition to heat after death in LENR systems) were due to EVOs being produced by those incidents of fracto-emission. These emissions of charged clusters, likely carrying some number of protons, would then inflict additional damage, creating a semi-perpetuating cycle that could go on for extended periods.

In one experiment that may be useful in visualizing the effect of SPPs, Shoulders placed the exposed, uncovered end portion of a length of insulated wire – 1/64th inch diameter covered with Formvar insulation – within the guide path of an EVO. He then allowed it to be struck multiple times. Under a critical voltage of 4.8 kilovolts, nothing significant happened. However, upon hitting that input voltage, sparks (which always indicate an EVO has been created) were emitted from the entire length of the wire which were powerful enough to blast off chunks of the insulation.

In subsequent strikes, sparks would only emerge from the insulated portions, and not where the insulation had been blasted off. The explanation here is pretty straightforward. Upon being hit by an EVO, the small diameter, low surface area wire allowed for the resulting surface plasmon polariton spikes to be intensified rather than spreading out over a large area and fading out. The SPPs were intensified even further where the dielectric insulating material covered the wire! Where the Formvar was not present, the only dielectric present was the low pressure, perhaps near vacuum gases of the surroundings. Here is a great example of how one EVO strike can trigger the production of many more.)

In recent years there have been many papers and patent applications published that revolve around the concept of powerful surface plasmon polaritons inducing nuclear reactions and isotopic shifting in a more direct manner. Often, the SPPs are stimulated with a specific type of laser, perhaps focused on a hydrogenated surface. Although the scientific jargon can be challenging to mentally digest at times, one explanation is that powerful SPPs on appropriate surfaces can liberate or produce a certain type of “slow neutron” with a large “cross section” that can easily penetrate into the nucleus of nearby atoms to induce isotopic shifting and/or exothermic nuclear reactions.

Another line of thought suggests that such intense SPPs can produce “heavy electrons” that can penetrate the electron shells of an atom to produce other types of reactions that produce energy. Some researchers cojecture that these heavy electrons may actually represent some form of electron cluster shielding the electrostatic charge an interior proton. Whatever the primary nuclear mechanism(s) of the reactions reported in such literature turn out to be, SPPs and the EVOs they help generate are intricately involved – without a doubt.

Using the understanding these two phenomena – SPPs and the “strange radiation” they generate – we can begin to examine how Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat technology evolved over time. In the following I hypothesize several optimizations made on the E-Cat is by no means complete or even totally accurate. But I believe it can provide insights into how Rossi produced SPPs, generated EVOs, and intelligently guided them to generate excess power. I’ll try to be brief on each point.

1 – In at least some if not all of his earliest systems, we know Andrea Rossi degassed his fuel under high vacuum to remove trapped gases. This removes trapped oxygen, water, and carbon monoxide among other contaminants that can hinder LENR reactions for multiple reasons – including the fact they take up space in the lattice where you want absorbed protons to go! If you don’t remove these gases, the hydrogen embrittlement process can’t happen. Another problem they cause that is directly relevant to this article, is that they can hinder the production of EVOs in a plasma. Kenneth Shoulders explained that water, oxygen, and electronegative gases can “suck up” electrons which inhibits the processes that produce charge clusters in a plasma environment. Cycles of heating and degassing may eliminate this problem.

2 – Andrea Rossi chose nickel powder with a high surface area. The carbonyl nickel he used (a specific type of nickel powder that’s commercially available and not the highly toxic gas) is covered in sub-micron spikes, tubercules, valleys, and protrusions. Not only would these features increase the effective surface area, but they would allow for SPPs to be enhanced. According to the Fluid Heater patent, he baked his particles to heat trapped water molecules which produced internal explosions that further enhanced the surface features.

3 – Nano-particles of palladium and other elements were mixed in with the nickel fuel. Utilizing nano-particles as “reverse spillover catalysts” can dramatically boost the adsorption and absorption of hydrogen into the nickel below. However, in regards to SPPs, the textured surface produced either by sputtering of the nickel or applied metallic nano-powders allows for an amplification effect in which the magnitude of the plasmons are increased.

4 – Ultra high temperatures are generated inside the reactor that can produce infrared photons, split molecular hydrogen into atomic hydrogen, and emit electrons. One possible way he has done this is by sometimes utilizing tungsten heating elements which can withstand the temperatures required. In addition to creating atomic hydrogen that can be much more rapidly absorbed by the nickel than molecular hydrogen, any free electrons, charged ions, or sufficiently energetic photons will be capable of producing SPPs on the surface of the fuel. These may be enhanced by the nano-particles coating the surface of the nickel powder or the spikes and protrusions found on the particles.

5 – In some setups, with or without other forms of stimulation or enhancement of SPPs, pulses of direct current may be applied through the body of the reactor. This likely not only creates intense plasmons ripples on the fuel but may ionize the gaseous environment to some extent. This can create additional free electrons and ions that may impact the fuel, enhancing hydrogen absorption and/or further magnifying the SPP effect. As will continue to be discussed, the production of plasma by some mechanism seems to be a common and repetitive theme.

6 – The individual modules of the original one megawatt plant tested in Italy utilized RFGs (radio frequency generators) that activated after a certain temperature profile had been reached. This would have produced a hydrogen (with perhaps a touch of lithium or other elements) plasma that not only could dramatically accelerate the hydrogenation process – yielding a brittle surface – but also generate EVOs. Kenneth Shoulders discussed and provided evidence that a pure plasma, with no metallic nano-particles from a cathode, could produce tracks and holes in a target called a “witness plate” that was either charged positively or grounded. In the reactors of this first one megawatt plant, some EVOs could have randomly impacted nickel fuel that may have been embedded onto the inner walls of the reactor body. However, Andrea Rossi used copper outer shells in at least some of his reactors. If the conductive exterior of such a reactor had been either grounded (earthed) or attached to a positive electrical potential, the EVOs would have been much more likely to impact the fuel on their way to the anode. Such impacts would have produced immense SPPs – which could then have stimulated nuclear reactions!

7 – Although I cannot find the reference, I specifically remember a reference that has always intrigued me, yet only in recent weeks have I recognized the full significance. In this very early article about one of Andrea Rossi’s first public tests of the E-Cat, an attendee reported a box attached to the reactor that was labled, “Tesla Coil.” For a long time, I thought that he was simply using the Tesla Coil to produce plasma capable of dissociating molecular hydrogen. Now, I recognize that there was another important reason. Kenneth Shoulders and others have been able to produce the signature tracks of EVOs by allowing the glowing streamers of a high voltage Tesla Coil to hit a target. According to him, an EVO leads each of these streamers as they travel towards a target. Connecting this to Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat, such an EVO at the tip of a streamer would produce powerful SPP waves upon striking hydrogenated, embrittled nickel powder. Not only would initial nuclear reactions take place via multiple possible routes, but the powerful strike could produce fracto-emission of electrons from broken bonds in the lattice the lattice. The continual cycles of EVO production could allow for periods in which the reactor could operate in a self-sustaining mode without input.

8 – Some of his reactors, such as the Lugano Device, could have produced plasma in their interiors due to high amplitude harmonics or resonance frequencies produced by the three phase AC applied to their resistance coils. At already very high internal temperatures, the barriers to plasma production could have been lowered enough so that this sub-optimal, indirect method was at least adequate to allow for EVO production. Utilizing the highest AC voltage possible would also likely help.

9 – Perhaps the most important fuel additive Rossi has utilized so far is lithium. Over the years and decades, multiple teams and scientists have discovered ways of inducing fusion between forms of hydrogen (protium, deuterium, or ions) and lithium at energies far below what’s officially predicted by mainstream physics. Two in particular stand out. In one series of papers available online, a prestigious researcher successfully and dramatically increased the rate enhancement of proton-lithium fusion by firing hydrogen into molten lithium. By keeping the lithium both in the molten state (near the melting temperature) and the surface clean of contaminants (no oxides or nitrides creating a barrier), he could induce individual fusion events using strikes with an energy of only a few thousand KeV.

Additionally, Unified Gravity Corporation has published results in which protons and lithium in the plasma state can undergo fusion reactions within a very low (if narrow) window of around 200eV. Due to these results, the idea of independent protons, accelerated to moderate energies, impacting and fusing with lithium atoms in an E-Cat seems quite feasible. Even more interestingly, the thought of EVOs carrying protons striking lithium wetted nickel powder is exciting!

Due to these charged clusters reducing mass and inertia somewhat like a hypothesized warp bubble, they could accelerate protons to far higher energies than those existing normally in the plasma. With proper tuning of whatever mechanism may be producing the plasma (ultra-hot heating element, radio frequency generator, high amplitude harmonics from the resistors, electrical impulses sent through the fuel) certain windows of collision energies could be carefully tuned in. Finally, lithium (like potassium and sodium rumored to have been used as a catalyst in some of his previous systems) is an electro-positive element that may help induce the production of EVOs.

10 – The Quark, or E-Cat QX, represents the current pinnacle of Andrea Rossi’s development of the energy catalyzer. A comparison of this device to some of Kenneth Shoulders test systems yields striking similarity. Moreover, the basic idea of a discharge tube with a cathode and an anode achieving a mode of excess power generation – in the forms of heat, light, and electricity — isn’t new. If his device works in a similar manner to others (some of which were focusing on electrical production rather than generation of thermal energy) then EVOs are without doubt involved.

We know so that there are two electrodes with a narrow channel between them that’s almost certainly composed of a dielectric material like quartz. As Kenneth Shoulders has explained, a narrow channel surrounded by dielectric is an ideal guide for an EVO. If there is a significant gas pressure and the surface is even reasonably smooth, the charge clusters will travel through such a cappilary tube from one end to the other, not touching the surface! The narrow tube may service another purpose. If the overall size of the electrodes are larger than the diameter of the hole in the dielectric, a field intensification process may boost the electric field in that region and allow an EVO to be generated more easily. Additionally, we don’t know anything about the surface characteristics of his electrodes. However, if they have been roughened up in some manner, this would assist the formation of EVOs. Likely, the electrodes have been embrittled due to being loaded with hydrogen and perhaps some quantity of lithium. Shoulders has described a method in which he coated a cathode with titanium hydride. The brittle and self replenishing nature of the surface – in addition to the hydrogen it continually emitted – was said to be useful in generating the EVO discharges. I expect that a nickel or nickel-manganese electrode (the manganese helping eliminate oxygen and sulfur which are contaminants) with a hydride layer would work in the same manner.

To produce huge amounts of energy, only the smallest quantities of hydrogen and lithium would be required. Thin coatings on the electrodes would likely be enough. Another reason for this is that those who have seen the actual reaction chamber report no sign of foreign material: the tube seems clear, transparent, and obscured. Perhaps an interesting thought is that over time molten lithium could, perhaps, work its way from the outer area of the cathode to the tip. One of the problems that Kenneth Shoulders had to overcome was the degradation of his sharp points on the tips of cathode wires. After many firings, the sharp points would become so blunted that higher and higher voltages would be required to emit EVOs. In addition to using metal hydride coatings, he also used reservoirs of low melting point conductive substances such as mercury to overcome the problem. Gradually attracted by electric forces towards the tip of the cathode, the minuscule quantity of mercury would wet the tip, form the needle like launch point of the EVO, and be ejected off during the explosive discharge. I can’t help but wonder if almost imperceptable quantities of lithium in the E-Cat QX have replaced mercury in Shoulder’s test systems. Or, perhaps, other electro-positive elements with a low melting point such as sodium could be used. The light from his reactor, a slightly orange bright yellow, sure does look similar to the glow of a sodium plasma tube.

Once the E-Cat QX is discharged, a burst of EVOs are likely generated. Many of these may be too small to be seen by the naked eye; however, Frank Acland has reported seeing a tiny dot of light positioned in the central tube between electrodes. Ignoring a wide range of possible nuclear reactions that might happen mid-flight, the EVO strike on the anode could induce a number of effects. Direct thermonuclear fusion by slamming transported positive ions to anode surface is one; the application of an anomalous kinetic energy capable of being thermalized is another; a powerful triggering of Surface Plasmon Polaritons of extreme magnitude capable of producing neutrons or heavy electrons (more EVOs) is exciting, and the continuing cycles of fracto-emission could be an explanation for how the plasma may be sustained with such a low voltage. Most likely, a couple of these mechanisms are dominant. Regardless, the EVO strike would be a potential trigger for all of them!

To go into the possible dynamics of the next series of reactions that would occur after such an LENR event on the anode would be an exhausting task. So, in short, I’ll simply say that I imagine a series of ejected particles, ions, and EVOs traveling back and forth between the electrodes helping the plasma sustain at nearly zero energy cost and an ultra low voltage.

The direct electrical production reported by Rossi would likely emerge from at least two sources. First, Kenneth Shoulders reported that EVOs can deposit their charge on an anode or secondary electrode target. The anode in the E-Cat QX is likely being bombarded by EVOs, and the impacts will be temporarily reversing the positive charge of the anode to a negative charge. This could likely be producing excess power spikes being fed back into the power supply. Secondly, Harold Aspden’s Law of Electrodynamics predicts that oppositely charged particles of different mass (in this case massive protons and light electrons) traveling in opposite directions would produce a linear electrodynamic force in a plasma – what I understand to be a flow of magnetic vector potential in one direction. This would produce multiple effects that could lead to electrical energy production and the overheating of Andrea Rossi’s power supply. Due to the nature of this “cold electricity” the engineering required may be challenging, because this type of electricity may abide by a different set of laws than ordinary “hot electricity.”

As a final note about the E-Cat QX, I’d like to point out that some suggest that the EVOs are a form of “magnetic monopole” ejecting a beam of magnetism. This would be in direct contradiction to the observed behavior of a charged cluster that closely resembles that of a negatively charged electron. EVOs are propelled linearly along electrical fields, are repulsed by like charges, continuously emit electrons observable in electron cameras, and seem to project a narrow beam of pure “magnetic vector potential.” This makes sense due to their torodial nature. The simplest way to think of them are tiny versions of macro scale perfectly wound torodial inductors – such as those used in electrical transformers. Their magnetic of an EVO is contained within the body of the torus while vector potential sprays out from the center hole like a jet of liquid. This narrowly confined powerful electric field likely extracts electron-positron pairs from the seething zero-point energy field to power the entire structure. Due to the fact that Maxwell’s original equations were gutted by Heaviside, many physicists (although not all) treat the scalar and vector potentials as mathematical abstractions. I’m looking forward to the EVOs inside the E-Cat QX proving the absolute reality of the scalar and vector potentials.

As you can see, I believe that Andrea Rossi’s true catalyst hasn’t been a particular ingredient, fuel additive, or stimulation method. All of these modifications have likely been useful and helpful – some working better than others. Fundamentally, though, the EVO is the true prime mover of the E-Cat. These entities hurriedly extracting energy from the vacuum and applying it to the reactor by a number of different mechanisms are responsible for the production of heat, light, and electricity in his systems.

This makes E-Cat technology even more interesting because it’s a hybrid system: extracting nuclear energy and zero-point energy at the same time. By examining the work of numerous researchers who have been investigating these electron clusters for decades, we can begin to understand how to optimize LENR systems. We’ll probably learn much about manipulating the zero-point energy field in the process – guiding us towards an understanding of the anomalous electrogravitic craft (including the man made ones) flying in our skies. The physics of the E-Cat won’t simply power out planet but also lead humanity to the stars, at warp speeds!

I encourage readers to spend a little time this holiday season considering the dynamics of how photons, electrons, ions, and plasmas may interact with roughened, properly sized surfaces to produce powerful Surface Plasmon Polaritons and EVOs that can induce nuclear reactions. Then, of course, how these EVOs can keep the process going by exciting even more intense SPPs and fracto-emission of additional charged clusters from hydrogen embrittled metals. Perhaps this coming year will be an exciting one with many detailed replications of the Rossi Effect.

Merry Christmas and an Energetic New Year!

Hank Mills

Weyl-Kondo Quantum Semi-metal Defines Deuterated Palladium (Russ George)

The following post was originally published by Russ George on the Atom Ecology website here, and is reposted here with permission.

December 21, 2017

An international team of physicists has just now “stumbled upon” an entirely new quantum material, which they have called “Weyl-Kondo semi-metal”.

In these quirky materials scientists don’t necessarily have the theories to predict the behaviour of such quantum materials, more often they create them experimentally first and measure them to observe their properties hoping the observations of new facts might one day lead to new theories.

Are we heading back to the roots of physics where observed mysteries comes first and theory only thereafter?
The new findings, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, come from a team at the Vienna University of Technology carrying out experimental work to develop new materials, and a team at Rice University carrying out theoretical work.

‘We really just stumbled upon this, suddenly, we found that the mass (of material in hand) had gone from like 1,000 times the mass of an electron to zero,’ said Dr Lai.

This is a definitive atom-ecology phenom characteristic of “Weyl fermions”, elusive particles first proposed over 80 years ago. The scientists understood that their particles were originating due to a phenomenon known as the “Kondo effect”, leading them to name their new material Weyl-Kondo semi-metal. Another characteristic of this ‘quantum material’ are its powerful interactions, beyond the potency of interactions defined or even predicted by standard physics.

Cold Fusion created a firestorm of dogmatic controversy in the world of physics, it was and is outside of the box of simple physics and demands a quantum mechanism… click to read more

The key to the new quantum material? Palladium, or rather doped palladium, a good starting point as palladium when doped with other elements such as deuterium has already shown the extraordinary characteristic of suddenly becoming a super-conductor another of the Weyl-Kondo expected characteristics.

Of course the anomalous results of the late great Martin Fleischmann and his colleague Stanley Pons are even more unexpected characteristics of their favoured ‘quantum-material’.

March 29, 1989

You might recall their momentous announcement of their findings following publication of their first paper in a prestigious journal of electro-chemistry…. their discovery became known as ‘COLD FUSION.’

The announcement of the room temperature fusion back in March of 1989 drew immediate attention around the world. It was so inexplicable that famous Nobel Laureates in Physics including Glen Seaborg, Linus Pauling, and Edward Teller soon declared that the effect must be a quantum effect. That quantum effect would allow for the screening of the normal Coulomb repulsion that keeps hydrogen nuclei from getting near enough to spontaneously fuse.

In November 1989, the Energy Research Advisory Board of the Department of Energy in the United States made five recommendations regarding Cold Fusion, among them, to check for the production of helium and of tritium in the electrolyte in which cold fusion was supposed to have occurred.

Helium, especially 4He and tritium have appeared in many cold fusion experiments in Japan, Italy, Russia, USA, Canada, India and China, and according to Li Xing Zhong at Tsinghua University Beijing China, it is one of the strongest pieces of evidence for condensed matter nuclear reactions, as it implies a new mechanism operating at low energy: selective resonance tunnelling (a quantum effect).

Here’s a link to a report in the Magazine WIRED revealing my finding of 4He in a controlled experiment. Side by side in real-time over 28 days helium was measured in palladium exposed to normal hydrogen, the control, and deuterium the active cold fusion reactor. The graph pictured is a spoiler for the report.

cf
Above is a sample of data showing a rise in 4He in a simple “cold fusion” experiment. Across the bottom in green is one set of data points where simple hydrogen was loaded into palladium, the red data set shows the identical experiment running deuterium gas. By simply heating the materials to 200 C abundant helium is produced. Experiment conducted at Stanford Research by Russ George sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto.

“The word quantum in quantum materials means they have properties that cannot be described by classical physics – we have to invoke quantum physics,” said Dr Amalia Coldea, a quantum materials researcher at the University of Oxford of this new finding.

While this new research is still of interest primarily to other quantum researchers, lead author Prof Buehler-Paschen is clear about where it could ultimately lead.

“Currently we design these materials to find new effects,” she said. “We search for them because these effects could be very useful, with technological applications.”

The most celebrated quantum materials are the high-temperature superconductors discovered in the 1980s, so named for their ability to conduct electrical current without resistance at temperatures well above those of traditional superconductors. Deuterated palladium is just such a superconductor.

Another classic example is the heavy fermion materials discovered in the late 1970s. In these, electrons appear to be effectively hundreds of times more massive than normal and, equally unusual, the effective electron mass seems to vary strongly as temperature changes. Could it be that these massive electron charges inside of the ultra-dense metallic deuterium that is its natural state when loaded into a palladium lattice is responsible for ‘cold fusion.’

Holmlid fusion

Holmlid

“Mesons from Laser-Induced Processes in Ultra Dense Hydrogen H(0)” – Leif Holmlid – Published: January 12, in PLOS ONE. It seems a very unusual form of ultra dense fusion is in hand in an incredibly simple to reproduce form with all the precision particle physics anyone might ever demand to substantiate it. Click here to read more

A scant few experimentalists and even fewer theoretical physicists have dedicated their careers to explaining the workings of such quantum materials. Much of the theoretical work focuses on the collective behavior that emerges in electronic materials undergoing transformation from one quantum state to another. It is near such points of transformation, or “quantum critical points,” that phenomena like high-temperature superconductivity and associated cold fusion effects are observed to occur.

These ‘quantum materials’ share some of the characteristics of topological insulators, a type of quantum material that gained international attention following the awarding of the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics. Topological materials have only been defined in insulators, and electricity would flow only on the materials’ surface and not through the bulk. The topological conductors, however, carry electricity in the bulk, thanks to the Weyl fermions.

“These topological conductors can be described within the textbook framework of independent electrons,” Grefe said. “The central question, as challenging as it is fascinating, is this: What happens when the electron correlations are strong?”

Si, Lai and Grefe demonstrated that their zero-mass fermions are intimately tied to both strong electron correlations and nontrivial topology.

“We quickly realized that these are Weyl fermions that originate from a quintessential strong-correlation physics called the Kondo effect,” Grefe said. “We therefore dubbed this state a Weyl-Kondo semimetal.”

The Kondo effect captures how a band of electrons, which are so strongly correlated with each other that they act as localized spins, behave in a background of conduction electrons.

“We found that the Kondo effect makes the Weyl fermions move with a velocity that differs by several orders of magnitude from the noninteracting case,” Lai said. “This allowed us to predict that the electron correlations will enhance a particular quantity in the temperature dependence of the specific heat by a mind-boggling factor of a billion.”

Effectively these massive electron charges combined with the characteristic that they are behaving at room temperature rather like they were a billion times hotter is the very bridge classical HOT FUSION had demanded for COLD FUSION to exist.

There remain some mysteries in cold fusion amongst which are the clearly missing highly energetic radiations that accompany typical HOT FUSIONS of deuterons, but that’s another part of the story, stay tuned.

Russ George

Announcement: New Energy World Symposium — Stockholm, June 18-19, 2018

The following announcement comes from Mats Lewan at the New Energy World Symposium website here.

It is with great pleasure that I can announce that the New Energy World Symposium will hold its first session on June 18-19, 2018, in Stockholm, Sweden.

As originally planned, the Symposium will address the implications for industry, financial systems, and society, of a radically new energy source called LENR—being abundant, cheap, carbon-free, compact and environmentally clean.

Such implications could be as disruptive as those of digitalization, or even more. For example, with such an energy source, all the fuel for a car’s entire life could be so little that it could theoretically be pre-loaded at the time of the car’s manufacture.

Ticket sales for the conference will start shortly when the program has been fully defined and selected speakers have been added. Meanwhile, attendees can pre-register here to be sure to be alerted when ticket sales start.

An initial list of speakers can be found on the front page of the Symposium’s website.

[Speakers listed so far: Mats Lewan, Bob Greenyer, John Joss, David Orban, Jim Dunn, Thomas Grimshaw, John Mitchell, Stephen Bannister, David Gwynne-Evans, David H Bailey]

For suggestions on additional speakers with awareness of the LENR field and with expertise about a particular industry, especially the energy industry, or the challenges of introducing new technology, please contact us.

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The decision to re-launch the symposium, that was originally planned to be held 2016, is based on a series of events and developments.

One important invention based on LENR technology is the E-Cat, developed by the Italian entrepreneur Andrea Rossi. Starting in 2015, Rossi performed a one-year test of an industrial scale heat plant, producing one megawatt of heat—the average consumption of about 300 Western households.

The test was completed on February 17, 2016, and a report by an independent expert confirmed the energy production.

Unfortunately, a conflict between Andrea Rossi and his U.S. licensee Industrial Heat led to a lawsuit that slowed down further development of the E-Cat technology. This was also why the original plans for the New Energy World Symposium had to be canceled.

In Juli, 2017, a settlement was reached implying that IH had to return the license. During the litigation, IH claimed that neither the report, nor the test was valid, but no conclusive proof for this was ever produced.

Meanwhile, Andrea Rossi continued to develop the third generation of his reactor, the E-Cat QX, which was demoed on November 24, 2017, in Stockholm, Sweden. Andrea Rossi has now signed an agreement with a yet undisclosed industrial partner for funding an industrialization of the heat generator, initially aiming at industrial applications.

The E-Cat reaction has also been replicated by others. In March 2017, the Japanese car manufacturer Nissan reported such a replication.

A few pioneering companies are developing similar technologies, among them Brilliant Light PowerBrillouin Energy and Unified Gravity Corporation, while individual researchers and research groups such as Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project have been reporting progress in the field.

Altogether, there are increasingly strong indications that the LENR effect is real and also that energy products might arrive in the market earlier than many have expected. And since the implications of such a compact, abundant, clean and flexible carbon-free energy source will be huge, we think that it’s important to hold the symposium to increase the understanding and prepare for a New Energy World.