New Paper: “Electron Structure, Ultra-Dense Hydrogen and Low Energy Nuclear Reactions”

Andrea Rossi for posted the following today on the Journal of Nuclear Physics.

Andrea Rossi
October 8, 2018 at 10:53 AM
Dear Readers:
I have read today this very interesting paper: “Electron Structure, Ultra-Dense Hydrogen and Low Energy Nuclear Reactions”, published on September 30 2018 by Antonino Oscar Di Tommaso ( Università Degli Studi di Palermo, Department of Energy, Information Engineering and Mathematical Models ) and by Giorgio Vassallo ( Università degli Studi di Palermo, Department of Industrial and Digital Innovation ).
Here are elements that can help the theory we are working on: Zitterbewegung of electrons that obey the Dirac equation when in rapid motion can act as catalizers of virtual particles and antiparticles when the T of the field reaches their mass.
Here is the link of this very interesting paper:
Warm Regards,

Here is the abstract to the paper:

In this paper, a simple Zitterbewegung electron model, proposed in a previous work, is presented from
a different perspective that does not require advanced mathematical concepts. A geometric-electromagnetic
interpretation of mass, relativistic mass, De Broglie wavelength, Proca, Klein-Gordon and Aharonov-Bohm
equations in agreement with the model is proposed. Starting from the key concept of mass-frequency equiv-
alence a non-relativistic interpretation of the 3.7 keV deep hydrogen level found by J. Naudts is presented.
According to this perspective, ultra-dense hydrogen can be conceived as a coherent chain of bosonic
electrons with protons or deuterons at center of their Zitterbewegung orbits. The paper ends with some
examples of the possible role of ultra-dense hydrogen in some aneutronic low energy nuclear reactions.

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Joi Scientific Press Release: “World’s largest boat and yacht retailer looks to Hydrogen 2.0 as fuel of the future for the marine industry”

Thanks to Max Nozin for referring to this recent press release from Joi Scientific.

World’s largest boat and yacht retailer looks to Hydrogen 2.0 as fuel of the future for the marine industry

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FL ― September 26, 2018 ― Joi Scientific™ Inc., whose mission is to make clean and affordable hydrogen energy available to all, has signed the first-ever license agreement for its Hydrogen 2.0™ production technology with MarineMax® (NYSE: HZO), the world’s largest boat and yacht retailer. The license agreement grants MarineMax the exclusive rights to develop, manufacture, and sell propulsion and auxiliary boat power systems capable of running on hydrogen extracted from seawater using Joi Scientific’s Hydrogen 2.0 technology for the worldwide marine industry. MarineMax and Joi Scientific will undertake joint development to bring hydrogen-based energy solutions to leading vendors in the marine industry.

Hydrogen 2.0 is the world’s first hydrogen production process based on the clean and affordable extraction of hydrogen directly from untreated seawater, on-demand, at the point of use. Hydrogen 2.0 technology will allow MarineMax to power boats, yachts, and ships using direct combustion, hybrid electric, or fuel cells to convert the hydrogen to power. This power can be used for multiple applications—including auxiliary power for lighting, heating, cooling, and cabin services, in addition to primary or secondary propulsion of any vessel.

“Joi Scientific’s innovative Hydrogen 2.0 technology provides three major advantages to the marine industry,” explains William McGill, Jr., Chairman and CEO of MarineMax. “It uses seawater as the base fuel stock that is very readily available. It derives power from a safe and reliable conversion process that is sustainable; involves no combustion of hydrocarbons; emits no carbon; and when used with fuel cells, produces no noise. It is also highly versatile and can potentially scale from auxiliary power for boats at anchor to powering the main propulsion system of pleasure and commercial yachts and ships.”

It is planned that the development of on-board power systems using Hydrogen 2.0 technology will be undertaken jointly by MarineMax, Joi Scientific, and their co-development partners who will work with vendors across the industry to develop complete solutions. Development work will initially focus on auxiliary power systems for yachts and for use in slow-speed cruising propulsion.

“Hydrogen is the world’s best fuel. By weight hydrogen is energy dense, and its only by-product is clean water when consumed,” says Traver Kennedy, CEO of Joi Scientific. “MarineMax, an innovator with a strong history of leadership, is an ideal partner to work with to develop our Hydrogen 2.0 technology for the marine industry, bringing the benefits of hydrogen to boats, yachts, and seagoing marine vessels around the world.”

About MarineMax

Headquartered in Clearwater, Florida, MarineMax is the nation’s largest recreational boat and yacht retailer. Focused on premium brands, such as Sea Ray, Boston Whaler, Meridian, Hatteras, Azimut Yachts, Ocean Alexander, Galeon, Grady-White, Harris, Bennington, Crest, Mastercraft, Scout, Sailfish, Sea Pro, Sportsman, Scarab Jet Boats, Tige’, Aquila, NauticStar, Nautique and Yamaha Jet Boats. MarineMax sells new and used recreational boats and related marine products and services as well as provides yacht brokerage and charter services. MarineMax currently has 63 retail locations in Alabama, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina and Texas and operates MarineMax Vacations in Tortola, British Virgin Islands. MarineMax is a New York Stock Exchange-listed company. For more information, please visit

About Joi Scientific

Joi Scientific was founded by a group of global business leaders, technologists, and social entrepreneurs who believe that plentiful hydrogen holds the key to giving the world a viable, no-compromise energy alternative. The company’s Hydrogen 2.0 technology has the potential to be the world’s first hydrogen production process that is on-demand, economically competitive, and environmentally neutral. The company is licensing its Hydrogen 2.0 technology to a wide range of major power industries including electrical generation, heat generation, transportation, and specialty power. Joi Scientific is headquartered at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

# # #

Joi Scientific™ and Hydrogen 2.0™ are trademarks of Joi Scientific, Inc. All other trademarks and registered trademarks are property of their respective owners.

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Brown’s Gas or HHO Gas and Potential Connection to LENR (Gerold S.)

The following post has been submitted by Gerold S.

Last week I stumbled over a Youtube video …

One Million Cavitating Water Electrolyzers | Moray B King

In this video, by the way very informative and humorous, also the topic Brown’s gas is explained and applications are shown (i.e. cars, which drive on water, welding with water, possibility to produce plasma,…) It seems that there is a lot of info and also communities out there, who work on the topic.

By watching this video and investigating further in the net, I got the impression that there seem to be some connections to LENR. (terms: ZPE, plasmoids, EVO, …)

Could it be that “Brown’s gas” could have an implication for LENR?

When I search i.e. LENR forum using the term “Brown’s gas” I don’t get very many hits…

At least Brown’s gas seems to have very special characteristics, which seem not unfamiliar to me, because already read or heard about with relation to LENR.

Following questions could interesting for discussion:

  • Could “Brown’s gas or HHO gas be of value for LENR research? Any ideas?
  • Would it be possible and feasible to use HHO gas for plasma creation to
    be used in a  LENR reactor?

These are just two questions, which came up to my mind and I hope that there are other community members out there who are willing to participate in discussion or have an interesting input.

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Press Release: US Naval Research Lab Awards $12 Million Contract to MacAulay-Brown, Inc for R&D of Pulsed Power Sources (Includes LENR)

Thanks to Alan Smith for passing along the following press release from MacAulay-Brown, Inc. (MacB).

MacB Wins $12M Plasma Physics Contract with the Naval Research Lab

DAYTON, Ohio August 27, 2018 – MacAulay-Brown, Inc. (MacB), an Alion company, has been awarded a $12 million Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity contract with the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Plasma Physics Division. The division is involved in the research, design, development, integration, and testing of pulsed power sources. Most of the work on the five-year SeaPort-e task order will be performed at MacB’s Commonwealth Technology Division (known as CTI) in Alexandria, Virginia.

Under this effort, MacB scientists, engineers, and technicians will perform on-site experimental and theoretical research in pulsed power physics and engineering, plasma physics, intense laser and charged particle-beam physics, advanced radiation production, and transport. Additional work will include electromagnetic-launcher technology, the physics of low-energy nuclear reactions and advanced energetics, production of high-power microwave sources, and the development of new techniques to diagnose and advance those experiments.

“CTI has provided scientific expertise, custom engineering, and fabrication services for the Plasma Physics Division since the 1980s,” said Greg Yadzinski, Vice President of the CTI organization under MacB’s National Security Group (NSG). “This new work will build on CTI’s long history of service to expand our capabilities into the division’s broad theoretical and experimental pulsed power physics, the interaction of electromagnetic waves with plasma, and other pulsed power architectures for future applications.”

At Alion, we combine large company resources with small business responsiveness to design and deliver engineering solutions across six core capability areas. With an 80-year technical heritage and an employee-base comprised of more than 30% veterans, we bridge invention and action to support military readiness from the lab to the battle space. Our engineers, technologists, and program managers bring together an agile engineering methodology and the best tools on the market to deliver mission success faster and at lower costs. We are committed to maintaining the highest standards; as such, Alion is ISO 9001:2008 certified and maintains CMMI Level 3-appraised development facilities. Based just outside of Washington, D.C., we help our clients achieve practical innovations by turning big ideas into real solutions. To learn more, visit

For 39 years, MacAulay-Brown, Inc. (MacB), an Alion company, has been solving many of the Nation’s most complex National Security challenges. MacB is committed to delivering critical capabilities in the areas of Intelligence and Analysis, Cybersecurity, Secure Cloud Engineering, Research and Development, Integrated Laboratories and Information Technology to Defense, Intelligence Community, Special Operations Forces, Homeland Security, and Federal agencies to meet the challenges of an ever-changing world. Learn more about MacB at


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Report: Industrial Heat Valuation at $113 Million

Thanks to JB for providing a link to a report from the UK Proactive Investors website which is reporting a steep rise in valuation for Industrial Heat LLC, which is one company in the Woodford Patient Capital fund, an investment fund operated by UK-based Woodford Investment Management company.

According to the article, the valuation for Industrial Heat is now US$112.9 million.

The article is available here:

While no longer associated with Andrea Rossi’s Leonardo Corporation, Industrial Heat has been providing funding to other researchers working in the LENR field. As far as I know there is no published document available listing exactly who Industrial Heat is supporting in the LENR field.

Tom Darden, one of the directors of Industrial Heat, outlined his goals for Industrial Heat’s involvement in LENR at the ICCF-19 in Padua, Italy in April 2015. He said:

“We’re collaborating with and investing alongside fellow researchers and developers. Scientists compete to be the first, and they count on open sharing of what has been discovered to advance the process. They want to be able to be able to safely share their work in an environment where why they do what they do, truly matters, and where it aligns with what they value. They want to know that their work will be funded and their ideas will be merit tested, and advanced as merited, and they will be rewarded fairly. We’re privileged to be creating that kind of environment at Industrial Heat.”

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DOE Lab Research Provides New Understanding of Inner Workings of Lithium-ion Battery Technology

Thanks to an ECW reader for letting me know about a news release from the US Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory provides some interesting information about research that has been done into the inner workings of lithium-ion batteries. New technology has allowed researchers to examine what is going on in these batteries on the nano scale, and has revealed information that was unavailable previously. The researchers believe that new information could lead to better battery technology in the future.

Here is an excerpt from the article:

“Previously, researchers thought that lithium iron phosphate was a one-dimensional conductor, meaning lithium ions are only able to travel in one direction through the bulk of the material, like salmon swimming upstream.

“But while sifting through their data, the researchers noticed that lithium was moving in a completely different direction on the surface of the material than one would expect based on previous models. It was as if someone had tossed a leaf onto the surface of the stream and discovered that the water was flowing in a completely different direction than the swimming salmon.

They worked with Saiful Islam, a chemistry professor at the University of Bath, UK, to develop computer models and simulations of the system. Those revealed that lithium ions moved in two additional directions on the surface of the material, making lithium iron phosphate a three-dimensional conductor.”

The full article can be found here:

Maybe the ‘popcorn effect’ mentioned in the article — where lithium rearranges itself inside the battery and causes failure — can help explain some of the fires that have occurred in some of these batteries. Possibly there is also some relevance to LENR effects in which lithium is one of the materials involved.

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Deneum White Paper Outlines Science Process, Business Plan

Along with their recent press release announcing a successful test of a lab version of their power plant, Estonian company Deneum have also released a white paper that outlines their scientific process and business plan. The white paper can be read here:

Below are some of the key points that they make in the white paper.


Dmitry Samoylovskikh, CEO of Deneum emphasizes the importance of moving away from fossil fuels and transitioning to a sustainable future.

“Can you imagine a fully electric aircraft with unlimited range? What if we could pay 80% less for our electricity bills? How many meaningful innovations could be brought to fruition if corporations reallocated the funds they pay for energy towards research and development? How beautiful would our cities look if all transport were fully electric and the air were pure? We believe that the time has come.”

Market Overview

Total planet consumption of electricity in 2016 was 20,000 terawatt-hours. Only 15 per cent of this came from renewable sources. Cryptocurrency now consumes 50 terawatt-hours per year, or 0.2 per cent of the World’s energy consumption.

Estonia is part of the Nord Pool electricity grid, where any producer on the grid can sell to any customer.

“A producer with a disruptive low-cost technology can sell to the grid at ~35 EUR/MWh or directly to corporate consumers at 50-100 EUR/MWh. ”


Moving from petroleum engines to electric engines in the transportation sector is expected to rise, but is happening slowly because low battery density and a lack of infrastructure.

“To experience a boom in growth, the industry needs a solution with autonomous and efficient power stations that give vehicles sufficient power . . . One green source of energy, provided it is more efficient than current polluting technologies, will trigger the movement towards a greener planet. That is the challenge of our generation — and we believe we must play an active role in it.”


Deneum uses a proprietary blend and structure of titanium and deuterium (heavy water) to create “excessive heat”. The heat is turned into mechanical energy and then into electricity using “our own innovative methods . . . to reach the highest possible efficiency.”

“In technical terms, the deuterium in the capsule is absorbed into a metallic crystal lattice, which is selected from a group of substances in metals that can sufficiently accept hydrogen. As mentioned above, we use titanium as the absorbing metal. The titanium, which is already present as titanium hydride inside the degassed thermal vacuum, is heated by internal batteries or by input power to a temperature of 600-1,373° K (326-1,100° Celsius) until the balanced residual gas inside the capsule reaches a pressure of no more than 1 Pa, which happens at 873° K (1,100° C). The active heating stops, and then the titanium lattice cools down to a value between 823–863° K (550—590° C). After the titanium lattice is saturated with deuterium, the deuterium is injected into the capsule with the aim of initiating the interaction. As a result, the active body self heats by 55-57° and cools back down (we call this “auto-variation”), resulting in excessive heat, which is then turned into mechanical energy. (“Excessive” means that the output energy exceeds the input energy that is spent on running the processes.)”

They state that once the power plant has started, the plant becomes “self-sufficient”, meaning that it is able to run from power generated by the plant.

Deneum prefers not to describe their process as “cold fusion” or “low energy nuclear reactions”, they are planning to publish academic reports that they hope will give their process acceptance among the scientific community.

Experience and Team

An early titanium/deuterium prototype was built in 1989 by Sergey Tsvetkov

The team is:

Dmitry Samoylovskikh CEO
Sergey Tsvetkov Technology
Sergei Godin Research
Maria Lapuk Public Relations
Artem Lukashin Investments
Max Podolski UI & UX

Business Model

Deneum plans to go to market in late 2020, and deliver testing plants in late 2019. They wish to obtain control of natural resources in order not to be put at a disadvantage if the price of natural resources spike.

“Proven global reserves of titanium well exceed the amount needed to switch all energy production to Deneum technology, while deuterium reserves are almost endless, since deuterium is part of the global ocean.”

“The plan is to initially release three stand-alone Power Stations for 5 kWh, 10 kWh, and 100 kWh — the modules that are connectable in parallel to reach any output power needed.”

As far as demonstration and validation goes, the white paper states this:

“The demonstrating prototype of the Power Station will be showcasing how the technology works. The steaming is scheduled to start on October 1st, 2018. Investors with 10,000 Tokens or more are welcome to come to our European lab to see the prototype at work and meet us in person.”

Token Sales

Initial funding will be raised through the sales of Deneum Tokens. “Deneum Token (Ticker: DNM) is a utility token. It is not a security and it does not grant shareholders rights.”

“Deneum Tokens (DNM) are the currency consumers use to purchase Deneum electricity. Any consumer will be able to purchase a certain amount of Deneum electricity, which we will physically supply.”

Sales of tokens have already begun with private sales; pre-sales will start on October 1; public sales will start on November 15th. Prices are available on the safe.

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Rolls-Royce Launches Lithium Ion Battery for Ships

Thanks to Alain Samoun for sending the following comment:

British manufacturer Rolls-Royce announced on its website , Monday, August 20, the launch of a lithium-ion electric battery for ships. The company has to deliver a battery system for the ships of the Norwegian company Hurtigruten. This is, in my opinion, what Rossi should be doing with its e-Cat instead of selling heat. Using steam engine, it would certainly be competitive with lithium batteries.

Here’s an excerpt from the press release here:

“Rolls-Royce is launching a lithium-ion based energy storage system for ships. The gain for the ship owners is a clean, safe and cost-efficient complete system.

Energy storage is a major green investment for a ship owner. Returns are maximised when the system is correctly dimensioned for the specific ship, and includes intelligent power control. Rolls-Royce have been delivering energy storage systems since 2010, however the actual energy storage units were previously supplied by an external party.

Rolls-Royce now offers SAVe Energy, a cost competitive, highly efficient and liquid cooled battery system with a modular design that enables the product to scale according to energy and power requirements. SAVe Energy comply with international legislations for low and zero emission propulsion systems.”

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Rossi: 40 MW E-Cat Plant to be the First

We get little bits of information from Andrea Rossi about his E-Cat plans. It’s a drip by drip feed of information that helps clarify (a little) what his plans are. This week, from asking questions on the Journal of Nuclear Physics, we have been told that the 40 MW E-Cat plant that Rossi has been discussing is going to be the first plant installed. He’s planning on starting big. It seems to mean a great deal to Rossi, who posted rather poetically:

Andrea Rossi
August 14, 2018 at 5:44 PM
Abe Vincent:
It will be a magnificence as I can see it inside my brain. Pure Art of technology and a window with the view of the sun of the future. My life has been also a series of failures and errors and resiliency, but if all the enormous work for which I spent my life will have as a result this plant, my life will have been worth to be spent.
Warm Regards,

At this point, it sounds like the plant is still in the planning stages, and I believe that the reason is that Leonardo has still not decided whether to build this plant from QX reactors (1 kW) or SK reactors (10 kW). I believe the this decision will be made only after further testing. Rossi wrote today:

Andrea Rossi
August 16, 2018 at 7:58 AM
Toussaint Francois:
Thank you for your kind wishes. Yes, an extremely important test will be made at the end of August through the first 10 days of September. After that, strategic decisions will have to be made.
Warm Regards,

I think that this “extremely important test” involves determining whether the SK is fit for purpose. Rossi has said that he hopes it is, because it will mean far fewer reactors (and presumably controllers) will have to be built, and the overall dimensions of the plant will be much smaller, since far fewer reactors will need to be built.

We’ll have to wait to find out how that testing goes. If there are still unresolved problems with the SK, than he may have to go with the larger plants using the QX. Rossi has said in the past that the QX is ready now, and he is holding fast to the projection of the January product presentation. From recent comments it sounds like the presentation will go forward even if the first industrial plant is not installed. When I asked if the first plant would be up and running before the presentation, Rossi replied: “maybe, but it is difficult.”

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Rossi Values 40 MW at $20 million.

We know that Andrea Rossi’s plan is not to sell E-Cat plants to customers, but to retain ownership and sell heat. But here is a Q&A that gives us an idea of how he values his technology.

August 11, 2018 at 8:40 PM
Dear Dr Rossi,
Can you tell us the price of the 40 MW plant?

Andrea Rossi
August 12, 2018 at 1:52 AM
The Client will pay nothing for the plant, because it will remain of our property and the Client will pay only the heat. Should it be for sale its price would be 20 million $, but for the time being we are not going to sell.
Warm Regards,

That puts an industrial E-Cat plant at $500,000 per MW. We don’t know how much it will cost to build these plants, it will likely to be more expensive in the beginning until economies of scale are improved if he can get mass production off the ground. Since Rossi is not selling plants outright, and only selling heat once it is used, there will be a lot of upfront investment required for Leonardo. They will only be able to make money once the plants are up and running well, and customers are paying their bills.

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